Mirantis Container Cloud Documentation

The documentation is intended to help operators understand the core concepts of the product.

The information provided in this documentation set is being constantly improved and amended based on the feedback and kind requests from our software consumers. This documentation set outlines description of the features supported within three latest Container Cloud minor releases and their supported Cluster releases, with a corresponding note Available since <release-version>.

The following table lists the guides included in the documentation set you are reading:

Guides list

Guide

Purpose

Reference Architecture

Learn the fundamentals of Container Cloud reference architecture to plan your deployment.

Deployment Guide

Deploy Container Cloud of a preferred configuration using supported deployment profiles tailored to the demands of specific business cases.

Operations Guide

Deploy and operate the Container Cloud managed clusters.

Release Compatibility Matrix

Deployment compatibility of the Container Cloud components versions for each product release.

Release Notes

Learn about new features and bug fixes in the current Container Cloud version as well as in the Container Cloud minor releases.

QuickStart Guides

Easy and lightweight instructions to get started with Container Cloud.

Intended audience

This documentation assumes that the reader is familiar with network and cloud concepts and is intended for the following users:

  • Infrastructure Operator

    • Is member of the IT operations team

    • Has working knowledge of Linux, virtualization, Kubernetes API and CLI, and OpenStack to support the application development team

    • Accesses Mirantis Container Cloud and Kubernetes through a local machine or web UI

    • Provides verified artifacts through a central repository to the Tenant DevOps engineers

  • Tenant DevOps engineer

    • Is member of the application development team and reports to line-of-business (LOB)

    • Has working knowledge of Linux, virtualization, Kubernetes API and CLI to support application owners

    • Accesses Container Cloud and Kubernetes through a local machine or web UI

    • Consumes artifacts from a central repository approved by the Infrastructure Operator

Conventions

This documentation set uses the following conventions in the HTML format:

Documentation conventions

Convention

Description

boldface font

Inline CLI tools and commands, titles of the procedures and system response examples, table titles.

monospaced font

Files names and paths, Helm charts parameters and their values, names of packages, nodes names and labels, and so on.

italic font

Information that distinguishes some concept or term.

Links

External links and cross-references, footnotes.

Main menu > menu item

GUI elements that include any part of interactive user interface and menu navigation.

Superscript

Some extra, brief information. For example, if a feature is available from a specific release or if a feature is in the Technology Preview development stage.

Note

The Note block

Messages of a generic meaning that may be useful to the user.

Caution

The Caution block

Information that prevents a user from mistakes and undesirable consequences when following the procedures.

Warning

The Warning block

Messages that include details that can be easily missed, but should not be ignored by the user and are valuable before proceeding.

See also

The See also block

List of references that may be helpful for understanding of some related tools, concepts, and so on.

Learn more

The Learn more block

Used in the Release Notes to wrap a list of internal references to the reference architecture, deployment and operation procedures specific to a newly implemented product feature.

Technology Preview features

A Technology Preview feature provides early access to upcoming product innovations, allowing customers to experiment with the functionality and provide feedback.

Technology Preview features may be privately or publicly available and neither are intended for production use. While Mirantis will provide assistance with such features through official channels, normal Service Level Agreements do not apply.

As Mirantis considers making future iterations of Technology Preview features generally available, we will do our best to resolve any issues that customers experience when using these features.

During the development of a Technology Preview feature, additional components may become available to the public for evaluation. Mirantis cannot guarantee the stability of such features. As a result, if you are using Technology Preview features, you may not be able to seamlessly upgrade to subsequent product releases.

Mirantis makes no guarantees that Technology Preview features will graduate to generally available features.

Documentation history

The documentation set refers to Mirantis Container Cloud GA as to the latest released GA version of the product. For details about the Container Cloud GA minor releases dates, refer to Container Cloud releases.

Product Overview

Mirantis Container Cloud enables you to ship code faster by enabling speed with choice, simplicity, and security. Through a single pane of glass you can deploy, manage, and observe Kubernetes clusters on public clouds, private clouds, or bare metal infrastructure. Mirantis Container Cloud provides the ability to leverage multiple on premises (VMware, OpenStack, and bare metal) and public cloud (AWS, Azure, Equinix Metal) infrastructure.

The list of the most common use cases includes:

Multi-cloud

Organizations are increasingly moving toward a multi-cloud strategy, with the goal of enabling the effective placement of workloads over multiple platform providers. Multi-cloud strategies can introduce a lot of complexity and management overhead. Mirantis Container Cloud enables you to effectively deploy and manage container clusters (Kubernetes and Swarm) across multiple cloud provider platforms, both on premises and in the cloud.

Hybrid cloud

The challenges of consistently deploying, tracking, and managing hybrid workloads across multiple cloud platforms is compounded by not having a single point that provides information on all available resources. Mirantis Container Cloud enables hybrid cloud workload by providing a central point of management and visibility of all your cloud resources.

Kubernetes cluster lifecycle management

The consistent lifecycle management of a single Kubernetes cluster is a complex task on its own that is made infinitely more difficult when you have to manage multiple clusters across different platforms spread across the globe. Mirantis Container Cloud provides a single, centralized point from which you can perform full lifecycle management of your container clusters, including automated updates and upgrades. We also support attaching existing Mirantis Kubernetes Engine clusters.

Highly regulated industries

Regulated industries need a fine level of access control granularity, high security standards and extensive reporting capabilities to ensure that they can meet and exceed the security standards and requirements. Mirantis Container Cloud provides for a fine-grained Role Based Access Control (RBAC) mechanism and easy integration and federation to existing identity management systems (IDM).

Logging, monitoring, alerting

A complete operational visibility is required to identify and address issues in the shortest amount of time – before the problem becomes serious. Mirantis StackLight is the proactive monitoring, logging, and alerting solution designed for large-scale container and cloud observability with extensive collectors, dashboards, trend reporting and alerts.

Storage

Cloud environments require a unified pool of storage that can be scaled up by simply adding storage server nodes. Ceph is a unified, distributed storage system designed for excellent performance, reliability, and scalability. Deploy Ceph utilizing Rook to provide and manage a robust persistent storage that can be used by Kubernetes workloads on the bare metal and Equinix Metal based clusters.

Security

Security is a core concern for all enterprises, especially with more of our systems being exposed to the Internet as a norm. Mirantis Container Cloud provides for a multi-layered security approach that includes effective identity management and role based authentication, secure out of the box defaults and extensive security scanning and monitoring during the development process.

5G and Edge

The introduction of 5G technologies and the support of Edge workloads requires an effective multi-tenant solution to manage the underlying container infrastructure. Mirantis Container Cloud provides for a full stack, secure, multi-cloud cluster management and Day-2 operations solution that supports both on premises bare metal and cloud.

Reference Architecture

Overview

Mirantis Container Cloud is a set of microservices that are deployed using Helm charts and run in a Kubernetes cluster. Container Cloud is based on the Kubernetes Cluster API community initiative.

The following diagram illustrates an overview of Container Cloud and the clusters it manages:

_images/cluster-overview.png

All artifacts used by Kubernetes and workloads are stored on the Container Cloud content delivery network (CDN):

  • mirror.mirantis.com (Debian packages including the Ubuntu mirrors)

  • binary.mirantis.com (Helm charts and binary artifacts)

  • mirantis.azurecr.io (Docker image registry)

All Container Cloud components are deployed in the Kubernetes clusters. All Container Cloud APIs are implemented using the Kubernetes Custom Resource Definition (CRD) that represents custom objects stored in Kubernetes and allows you to expand Kubernetes API.

The Container Cloud logic is implemented using controllers. A controller handles the changes in custom resources defined in the controller CRD. A custom resource consists of a spec that describes the desired state of a resource provided by a user. During every change, a controller reconciles the external state of a custom resource with the user parameters and stores this external state in the status subresource of its custom resource.

Container Cloud regions

Container Cloud can have several regions. A region is a physical location, for example, a data center, that has access to one or several cloud provider back ends. A separate regional cluster manages a region that can include multiple providers. A region must have a two-way (full) network connectivity between a regional cluster and a cloud provider back end. For example, an OpenStack VM must have access to the related regional cluster. And this regional cluster must have access to the OpenStack floating IPs and load balancers.

The following diagram illustrates the structure of the Container Cloud regions:

_images/regions.png
Container Cloud cluster types

The types of the Container Cloud clusters include:

Bootstrap cluster
  • Runs the bootstrap process on a seed node. For the OpenStack, AWS, Equinix Metal, Microsoft Azure, or VMware vSphere-based Container Cloud, it can be an operator desktop computer. For the baremetal-based Container Cloud, this is the first temporary data center node.

  • Requires access to a provider back end: OpenStack, AWS, Azure, vSphere, Equinix Metal, or bare metal.

  • Contains minimum set of services to deploy the management and regional clusters.

  • Is destroyed completely after a successful bootstrap.

Management and regional clusters
  • Management cluster:

    • Runs all public APIs and services including the web UIs of Container Cloud.

    • Does not require access to any provider back end.

  • Regional cluster:

    • Is combined with management cluster by default.

    • Runs the provider-specific services and internal API including LCMMachine and LCMCluster. Also, it runs an LCM controller for orchestrating managed clusters and other controllers for handling different resources.

    • Requires two-way access to a provider back end. The provider connects to a back end to spawn managed cluster nodes, and the agent running on the nodes accesses the regional cluster to obtain the deployment information.

    • Requires access to a management cluster to obtain user parameters.

    • Supports multi-regional deployments. For example, you can deploy an AWS-based management cluster with AWS-based and OpenStack-based regional clusters.

Management and regional clusters comprise Container Cloud as product. For deployment details, see Deployment Guide and Deploy an additional regional cluster (optional) sections for the required cloud provider.

Managed cluster
  • A Mirantis Kubernetes Engine (MKE) cluster that an end user creates using the Container Cloud web UI.

  • Requires access to a regional cluster. Each node of a managed cluster runs an LCM Agent that connects to the LCM machine of the regional cluster to obtain the deployment details.

  • An attached MKE cluster that is not created using Container Cloud. In such case, nodes of the attached cluster do not contain LCM Agent. For supported MKE versions that can be attached to Container Cloud, see Release Compatibility Matrix.

  • Baremetal-based managed clusters support the Mirantis OpenStack for Kubernetes (MOSK) product. For details, see MOSK documentation.

All types of the Container Cloud clusters except the bootstrap cluster are based on the MKE and Mirantis Container Runtime (MCR) architecture. For details, see MKE and MCR documentation.

The following diagram illustrates the distribution of services between each type of the Container Cloud clusters:

_images/cluster-types.png

Cloud provider

The Mirantis Container Cloud provider is the central component of Container Cloud that provisions a node of a management, regional, or managed cluster and runs the LCM Agent on this node. It runs in a management and regional clusters and requires connection to a provider back end.

The Container Cloud provider interacts with the following types of public API objects:

Public API object name

Description

Container Cloud release object

Contains the following information about clusters:

  • Version of the supported Cluster release for a management and regional clusters

  • List of supported Cluster releases for the managed clusters and supported upgrade path

  • Description of Helm charts that are installed on the management and regional clusters depending on the selected provider

Cluster release object

  • Provides a specific version of a management, regional, or managed cluster. Any Cluster release object, as well as a Container Cloud release object never changes, only new releases can be added. Any change leads to a new release of a cluster.

  • Contains references to all components and their versions that are used to deploy all cluster types:

    • LCM components:

      • LCM Agent

      • Ansible playbooks

      • Scripts

      • Description of steps to execute during a cluster deployment and upgrade

      • Helm Controller image references

    • Supported Helm charts description:

      • Helm chart name and version

      • Helm release name

      • Helm values

Cluster object

  • References the Credentials, KaaSRelease and ClusterRelease objects.

  • Is tied to a specific Container Cloud region and provider.

  • Represents all cluster-level resources. For example, for the OpenStack-based clusters, it represents networks, load balancer for the Kubernetes API, and so on. It uses data from the Credentials object to create these resources and data from the KaaSRelease and ClusterRelease objects to ensure that all lower-level cluster objects are created.

Machine object

  • References the Cluster object.

  • Represents one node of a managed cluster, for example, an OpenStack VM, and contains all data to provision it.

Credentials object

  • Contains all information necessary to connect to a provider back end.

  • Is tied to a specific Container Cloud region and provider.

PublicKey object

Is provided to every machine to obtain an SSH access.

The following diagram illustrates the Container Cloud provider data flow:

_images/provider-dataflow.png

The Container Cloud provider performs the following operations in Container Cloud:

  • Consumes the below types of data from a management and regional cluster:

    • Credentials to connect to a provider back end

    • Deployment instructions from the KaaSRelease and ClusterRelease objects

    • The cluster-level parameters from the Cluster objects

    • The machine-level parameters from the Machine objects

  • Prepares data for all Container Cloud components:

    • Creates the LCMCluster and LCMMachine custom resources for LCM Controller and LCM Agent. The LCMMachine custom resources are created empty to be later handled by the LCM Controller.

    • Creates the HelmBundle custom resources for the Helm Controller using data from the KaaSRelease and ClusterRelease objects.

    • Creates service accounts for these custom resources.

    • Creates a scope in Identity and access management (IAM) for a user access to a managed cluster.

  • Provisions nodes for a managed cluster using the cloud-init script that downloads and runs the LCM Agent.

  • Installs Helm Controller as a Helm v3 chart.

Release Controller

The Mirantis Container Cloud Release Controller is responsible for the following functionality:

  • Monitor and control the KaaSRelease and ClusterRelease objects present in a management cluster. If any release object is used in a cluster, the Release Controller prevents the deletion of such an object.

  • Sync the KaaSRelease and ClusterRelease objects published at https://binary.mirantis.com/releases/ with an existing management cluster.

  • Trigger the Container Cloud auto-upgrade procedure if a new KaaSRelease object is found:

    1. Search for the managed clusters with old Cluster releases that are not supported by a new Container Cloud release. If any are detected, abort the auto-upgrade and display a corresponding note about an old Cluster release in the Container Cloud web UI for the managed clusters. In this case, a user must update all managed clusters using the Container Cloud web UI. Once all managed clusters are upgraded to the Cluster releases supported by a new Container Cloud release, the Container Cloud auto-upgrade is retriggered by the Release Controller.

    2. Trigger the Container Cloud release upgrade of all Container Cloud components in a management cluster. The upgrade itself is processed by the Container Cloud provider.

    3. Trigger the Cluster release upgrade of a management cluster to the Cluster release version that is indicated in the upgraded Container Cloud release version. The LCMCluster components, such as MKE, are upgraded before the HelmBundle components, such as StackLight or Ceph.

    4. Verify the regional cluster(s) status. If the regional cluster is ready, trigger the Cluster release upgrade of the regional cluster.

      Once a management cluster is upgraded, an option to update a managed cluster becomes available in the Container Cloud web UI. During a managed cluster update, all cluster components including Kubernetes are automatically upgraded to newer versions if available. The LCMCluster components, such as MKE, are upgraded before the HelmBundle components, such as StackLight or Ceph.

The Operator can delay the Container Cloud automatic upgrade procedure for a limited amount of time or schedule upgrade to run at desired hours or weekdays. For details, see Schedule Mirantis Container Cloud upgrades.

Container Cloud remains operational during the management and regional clusters upgrade. Managed clusters are not affected during this upgrade. For the list of components that are updated during the Container Cloud upgrade, see the Components versions section of the corresponding Container Cloud release in Release Notes.

Caution

Due to the known issue 24802 affecting clusters with enabled proxy, the Container Cloud release upgrade from 2.17.0 to 2.18.0 can trigger automatic update of managed clusters to the latest available Cluster releases in their respective series. For details, see the known issue 24802.

When Mirantis announces support of the newest versions of Mirantis Container Runtime (MCR) and Mirantis Kubernetes Engine (MKE), Container Cloud automatically upgrades these components as well. For the maintenance window best practices before upgrade of these components, see MKE Documentation.

Web UI

The Mirantis Container Cloud web UI is mainly designed to create and update the managed clusters as well as add or remove machines to or from an existing managed cluster. It also allows attaching existing Mirantis Kubernetes Engine (MKE) clusters.

You can use the Container Cloud web UI to obtain the management cluster details including endpoints, release version, and so on. The management cluster update occurs automatically with a new release change log available through the Container Cloud web UI.

The Container Cloud web UI is a JavaScript application that is based on the React framework. The Container Cloud web UI is designed to work on a client side only. Therefore, it does not require a special back end. It interacts with the Kubernetes and Keycloak APIs directly. The Container Cloud web UI uses a Keycloak token to interact with Container Cloud API and download kubeconfig for the management and managed clusters.

The Container Cloud web UI uses NGINX that runs on a management cluster and handles the Container Cloud web UI static files. NGINX proxies the Kubernetes and Keycloak APIs for the Container Cloud web UI.

Bare metal

The bare metal service provides for the discovery, deployment, and management of bare metal hosts.

The bare metal management in Mirantis Container Cloud is implemented as a set of modular microservices. Each microservice implements a certain requirement or function within the bare metal management system.

Bare metal components

The bare metal management solution for Mirantis Container Cloud includes the following components:

Bare metal components

Component

Description

OpenStack Ironic

The back-end bare metal manager in a standalone mode with its auxiliary services that include httpd, dnsmasq, and mariadb.

OpenStack Ironic Inspector

Introspects and discovers the bare metal hosts inventory. Includes OpenStack Ironic Python Agent (IPA) that is used as a provision-time agent for managing bare metal hosts.

Ironic Operator

Monitors changes in the external IP addresses of httpd, ironic, and ironic-inspector and automatically reconciles the configuration for dnsmasq, ironic, baremetal-provider, and baremetal-operator.

Bare Metal Operator

Manages bare metal hosts through the Ironic API. The Container Cloud bare-metal operator implementation is based on the Metal³ project.

Bare metal resources manager

Ensures that the bare metal provisioning artifacts such as the distribution image of the operating system is available and up to date.

cluster-api-provider-baremetal

The plugin for the Kubernetes Cluster API integrated with Container Cloud. Container Cloud uses the Metal³ implementation of cluster-api-provider-baremetal for the Cluster API.

HAProxy

Load balancer for external access to the Kubernetes API endpoint.

LCM Agent

Used for physical and logical storage, physical and logical network, and control over the life cycle of a bare metal machine resources.

Ceph

Distributed shared storage is required by the Container Cloud services to create persistent volumes to store their data.

MetalLB

Load balancer for Kubernetes services on bare metal. 1

NGINX

Starting from Container Cloud 2.15.0, replaced with HAProxy. For details, see the HAProxy description above.

Keepalived

Monitoring service that ensures availability of the virtual IP for the external load balancer endpoint (HAProxy). 1

IPAM

IP address management services provide consistent IP address space to the machines in bare metal clusters. See details in IP Address Management.

1(1,2)

For details, see Built-in load balancing.

The diagram below summarizes the following components and resource kinds:

  • Metal³-based bare metal management in Container Cloud (white)

  • Internal APIs (yellow)

  • External dependency components (blue)

_images/bm-component-stack.png
Bare metal networking

This section provides an overview of the networking configuration and the IP address management in the Mirantis Container Cloud on bare metal.

IP Address Management

Mirantis Container Cloud on bare metal uses IP Address Management (IPAM) to keep track of the network addresses allocated to bare metal hosts. This is necessary to avoid IP address conflicts and expiration of address leases to machines through DHCP.

Note

Only IPv4 address family is currently supported by Container Cloud and IPAM. IPv6 is not supported and not used in Container Cloud.

IPAM is provided by the kaas-ipam controller. Its functions include:

  • Allocation of IP address ranges or subnets to newly created clusters using SubnetPool and Subnet resources.

  • Allocation IP addresses to machines and cluster services at the request of baremetal-provider using the IpamHost and IPaddr resources.

  • Creation and maintenance of host networking configuration on the bare metal hosts using the IpamHost resources.

The IPAM service can support different networking topologies and network hardware configurations on the bare metal hosts.

In the most basic network configuration, IPAM uses a single L3 network to assign addresses to all bare metal hosts, as defined in Managed cluster networking.

You can apply complex networking configurations to a bare metal host using the L2 templates. The L2 templates imply multihomed host networking and enable you to create a managed cluster where nodes use separate host networks for different types of traffic. Multihoming is required to ensure the security and performance of a managed cluster.

Warning

  • Starting from Container Cloud 2.17.0, modification of L2 templates in use is prohibited in the API to prevent accidental cluster failures due to unsafe changes. The list of risks posed by modifying L2 templates includes:

    • Services running on hosts cannot reconfigure automatically to switch to the new IP addresses and/or interfaces.

    • Connections between services are interrupted unexpectedly, which can cause data loss.

    • Incorrect configurations on hosts can lead to irrevocable loss of connectivity between services and unexpected cluster partition or disassembly.

  • Starting from Container Cloud 2.19.0, modification of L2 templates in use is allowed with a mandatory validation step from the Infrastructure Operator. For details, see Modify network configuration on an existing machine since 2.19.0.

Management cluster networking

The main purpose of networking in a Container Cloud management or regional cluster is to provide access to the Container Cloud Management API that consists of the Kubernetes API of the Container Cloud management and regional clusters and the Container Cloud LCM API. This API allows end users to provision and configure managed clusters and machines. Also, this API is used by LCM Agents in managed clusters to obtain configuration and report status.

The following types of networks are supported for the management and regional clusters in Container Cloud:

  • PXE network

    Enables PXE boot of all bare metal machines in the Container Cloud region.

    • PXE subnet

      Provides IP addresses for DHCP and network boot of the bare metal hosts for initial inspection and operating system provisioning. This network may not have the default gateway or a router connected to it. The PXE subnet is defined by the Container Cloud Operator during bootstrap.

      Provides IP addresses for the bare metal management services of Container Cloud, such as bare metal provisioning service (Ironic). These addresses are allocated and served by MetalLB.

  • Management network

    Connects LCM Agents running on the hosts to the Container Cloud LCM API. Serves the external connections to the Container Cloud Management API. The network is also used for communication between kubelet and the Kubernetes API server inside a Kubernetes cluster. The MKE components use this network for communication inside a swarm cluster.

    • LCM subnet

      Provides IP addresses for the Kubernetes nodes in the management cluster. This network also provides a Virtual IP (VIP) address for the load balancer that enables external access to the Kubernetes API of a management cluster. This VIP is also the endpoint to access the Container Cloud Management API in the management cluster.

      Provides IP addresses for the externally accessible services of Container Cloud, such as Keycloak, web UI, StackLight. These addresses are allocated and served by MetalLB.

    Before Container Cloud 2.20.0, the management network also serves storage traffic for the built-in Ceph cluster.

    Ceph changes in Container Cloud 2.20

    • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, the Ceph cluster does not deploy on management and regional clusters to reduce resource consumption.

    • Ceph cluster is automatically removed from existing management and regional clusters during the Container Cloud update to 2.20.0.

    • Managed clusters continue using Ceph as a distributed storage system.

  • Kubernetes workloads network

    Technology Preview

    Serves the internal traffic between workloads on the management cluster.

    • Kubernetes workloads subnet

      Provides IP addresses that are assigned to nodes and used by Calico.

  • Out-of-Band (OOB) network

    Connects to Baseboard Management Controllers of the servers that host the management cluster. The OOB subnet must be accessible from the management network through IP routing. The OOB network is not managed by Container Cloud and is not represented in the IPAM API.

Managed cluster networking

A Kubernetes cluster networking is typically focused on connecting pods on different nodes. On bare metal, however, the cluster networking is more complex as it needs to facilitate many different types of traffic.

Kubernetes clusters managed by Mirantis Container Cloud have the following types of traffic:

  • PXE network

    Enables the PXE boot of all bare metal machines in Container Cloud. This network is not configured on the hosts in a managed cluster. It is used by the bare metal provider to provision additional hosts in managed clusters and is disabled on the hosts after provisioning is done.

  • Life-cycle management (LCM) network

    Connects LCM Agents running on the hosts to the Container Cloud LCM API. The LCM API is provided by the regional or management cluster. The LCM network is also used for communication between kubelet and the Kubernetes API server inside a Kubernetes cluster. The MKE components use this network for communication inside a swarm cluster.

    • LCM subnet

      Provides IP addresses that are statically allocated by the IPAM service to bare metal hosts. This network must be connected to the Kubernetes API endpoint of the regional cluster through an IP router. LCM Agents running on managed clusters will connect to the regional cluster API through this router. LCM subnets may be different per managed cluster as long as this connection requirement is satisfied. The Virtual IP (VIP) address for load balancer that enables access to the Kubernetes API of the managed cluster must be allocated from the LCM subnet.

  • Kubernetes workloads network

    Technology Preview

    Serves as an underlay network for traffic between pods in the managed cluster. This network should not be shared between clusters.

    • Kubernetes workloads subnet

      Provides IP addresses that are assigned to nodes and used by Calico.

  • Kubernetes external network

    Serves ingress traffic to the managed cluster from the outside world. This network can be shared between clusters, but must have a dedicated subnet per cluster.

    • Services subnet

      Technology Preview

      Provides IP addresses for externally available load-balanced services. The address ranges for MetalLB are assigned from this subnet. This subnet must be unique per managed cluster.

  • Storage network

    Serves storage access and replication traffic from and to Ceph OSD services. The storage network does not need to be connected to any IP routers and does not require external access, unless you want to use Ceph from outside of a Kubernetes cluster. To use a dedicated storage network, define and configure both subnets listed below.

    • Storage access subnet

      Provides IP addresses that are assigned to Ceph nodes. The Ceph OSD services bind to these addresses on their respective nodes. Serves Ceph access traffic from and to storage clients. This is a public network in Ceph terms. 1 This subnet is unique per managed cluster.

    • Storage replication subnet

      Provides IP addresses that are assigned to Ceph nodes. The Ceph OSD services bind to these addresses on their respective nodes. Serves Ceph internal replication traffic. This is a cluster network in Ceph terms. 1 This subnet is unique per managed cluster.

  • Out-of-Band (OOB) network

    Connects baseboard management controllers (BMCs) of the bare metal hosts. This network must not be accessible from the managed clusters.

The following diagram illustrates the networking schema of the Container Cloud deployment on bare metal with a managed cluster:

_images/bm-cluster-l3-networking-multihomed.png
1(1,2)

For more details about Ceph networks, see Ceph Network Configuration Reference.

Host networking

The following network roles are defined for all Mirantis Container Cloud clusters nodes on bare metal including the bootstrap, management, regional, and managed cluster nodes:

  • Out-of-band (OOB) network

    Connects the Baseboard Management Controllers (BMCs) of the hosts in the network to Ironic. This network is out of band for the host operating system.

  • PXE network

    Enables remote booting of servers through the PXE protocol. In management or regional clusters, DHCP server listens on this network for hosts discovery and inspection. In managed clusters, hosts use this network for the initial PXE boot and provisioning.

  • LCM network

    Connects LCM Agents running on the node to the LCM API of the management or regional cluster. It is also used for communication between kubelet and the Kubernetes API server inside a Kubernetes cluster. The MKE components use this network for communication inside a swarm cluster. In management or regional clusters, it is replaced by the management network.

  • Kubernetes workloads (pods) network

    Technology Preview

    Serves connections between Kubernetes pods. Each host has an address on this network, and this address is used by Calico as an endpoint to the underlay network.

  • Kubernetes external network

    Technology Preview

    Serves external connection to the Kubernetes API and the user services exposed by the cluster. In management or regional clusters, it is replaced by the management network.

  • Management network

    Serves external connections to the Container Cloud Management API and services of the management or regional cluster. Not available in a managed cluster.

  • Storage access network

    Connects Ceph nodes to the storage clients. The Ceph OSD service is bound to the address on this network. This is a public network in Ceph terms. 0

    Before Container Cloud 2.20.0, in management or regional clusters, it is replaced by the management network.

    Ceph changes in Container Cloud 2.20

    • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, the Ceph cluster does not deploy on management and regional clusters to reduce resource consumption.

    • Ceph cluster is automatically removed from existing management and regional clusters during the Container Cloud update to 2.20.0.

    • Managed clusters continue using Ceph as a distributed storage system.

  • Storage replication network

    Connects Ceph nodes to each other. Serves internal replication traffic. This is a cluster network in Ceph terms. 0

    Before Container Cloud 2.20.0, in management or regional clusters, it is replaced by the management network.

Each network is represented on the host by a virtual Linux bridge. Physical interfaces may be connected to one of the bridges directly, or through a logical VLAN subinterface, or combined into a bond interface that is in turn connected to a bridge.

The following table summarizes the default names used for the bridges connected to the networks listed above:

Management or regional cluster

Network type

Bridge name

Assignment method TechPreview

OOB network

N/A

N/A

PXE network

bm-pxe

By a static interface name

Management network

k8s-lcm 2

By a subnet label ipam/SVC-k8s-lcm

Kubernetes workloads network

k8s-pods 1

By a static interface name

Managed cluster

Network type

Bridge name

Assignment method

OOB network

N/A

N/A

PXE network

N/A

N/A

LCM network

k8s-lcm 2

By a subnet label ipam/SVC-k8s-lcm

Kubernetes workloads network

k8s-pods 1

By a static interface name

Kubernetes external network

k8s-ext

By a static interface name

Storage access (public) network

ceph-public

By the subnet label ipam/SVC-ceph-public

Storage replication (cluster) network

ceph-cluster

By the subnet label ipam/SVC-ceph-cluster

0(1,2)

Ceph network configuration reference

1(1,2)

Interface name for this network role is static and cannot be changed.

2(1,2)

Use of this interface name (and network role) is mandatory for every cluster.

Extended hardware configuration

Mirantis Container Cloud provides APIs that enable you to define hardware configurations that extend the reference architecture:

  • Bare Metal Host Profile API

    Enables for quick configuration of host boot and storage devices and assigning of custom configuration profiles to individual machines. See Create a custom bare metal host profile.

  • IP Address Management API

    Enables for quick configuration of host network interfaces and IP addresses and setting up of IP addresses ranges for automatic allocation. See Create L2 templates.

Typically, operations with the extended hardware configurations are available through the API and CLI, but not the web UI.

Automatic upgrade of a host operating system

To keep operating system on a bare metal host up to date with the latest security updates, the operating system requires periodic software packages upgrade that may or may not require the host reboot.

Mirantis Container Cloud uses life cycle management tools to update the operating system packages on the bare metal hosts. Container Cloud may also trigger restart of bare metal hosts to apply the updates.

In the management cluster of Container Cloud, software package upgrade and host restart is applied automatically when a new Container Cloud version with available kernel or software packages upgrade is released.

In managed clusters, package upgrade and host restart is applied as part of usual cluster upgrade using the Update cluster option in the Container Cloud web UI.

Operating system upgrade and host restart are applied to cluster nodes one by one. If Ceph is installed in the cluster, the Container Cloud orchestration securely pauses the Ceph OSDs on the node before restart. This allows avoiding degradation of the storage service.

Caution

  • Depending on the cluster configuration, applying security updates and host restart can increase the update time for each node to up to 1 hour.

  • Cluster nodes are updated one by one. Therefore, for large clusters, the update may take several days to complete.

Built-in load balancing

The Mirantis Container Cloud managed clusters that are based on vSphere, Equinix Metal, or bare metal use MetalLB for load balancing of services and HAProxy with VIP managed by Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) with Keepalived for the Kubernetes API load balancer.

Kubernetes API load balancing

Every control plane node of each Kubernetes cluster runs the kube-api service in a container. This service provides a Kubernetes API endpoint. Every control plane node also runs the haproxy server that provides load balancing with back-end health checking for all kube-api endpoints as back ends.

The default load balancing method is least_conn. With this method, a request is sent to the server with the least number of active connections. The default load balancing method cannot be changed using the Container Cloud API.

Only one of the control plane nodes at any given time serves as a front end for Kubernetes API. To ensure this, the Kubernetes clients use a virtual IP (VIP) address for accessing Kubernetes API. This VIP is assigned to one node at a time using VRRP. Keepalived running on each control plane node provides health checking and failover of the VIP.

Keepalived is configured in multicast mode.

Note

The use of VIP address for load balancing of Kubernetes API requires that all control plane nodes of a Kubernetes cluster are connected to a shared L2 segment. This limitation prevents from installing full L3 topologies where control plane nodes are split between different L2 segments and L3 networks.

Caution

External load balancers for services are not supported by the current version of the Container Cloud vSphere provider. The built-in load balancing described in this section is the only supported option and cannot be disabled.

Services load balancing

The services provided by the Kubernetes clusters, including Container Cloud and user services, are balanced by MetalLB. The metallb-speaker service runs on every worker node in the cluster and handles connections to the service IP addresses.

MetalLB runs in the MAC-based (L2) mode. It means that all control plane nodes must be connected to a shared L2 segment. This is a limitation that does not allow installing full L3 cluster topologies.

Caution

External load balancers for services are not supported by the current version of the Container Cloud vSphere provider. The built-in load balancing described in this section is the only supported option and cannot be disabled.

VMware vSphere network objects and IPAM recommendations

The VMware vSphere provider of Mirantis Container Cloud supports the following types of vSphere network objects:

  • Virtual network

    A network of virtual machines running on a hypervisor(s) that are logically connected to each other so that they can exchange data. Virtual machines can be connected to virtual networks that you create when you add a network.

  • Distributed port group

    A port group associated with a vSphere distributed switch that specifies port configuration options for each member port. Distributed port groups define how connection is established through the vSphere distributed switch to the network.

A Container Cloud cluster can be deployed using one of these network objects with or without a DHCP server in the network:

  • Non-DHCP

    Container Cloud uses IPAM service to manage IP addresses assignment to machines. You must provide additional network parameters, such as CIDR, gateway, IP ranges, and nameservers. Container Cloud processes this data to the cloud-init metadata and passes the data to machines during their bootstrap.

  • DHCP

    Container Cloud relies on a DHCP server to assign IP addresses to virtual machines.

Mirantis recommends using IP address management (IPAM) for cluster machines provided by Container Cloud. IPAM must be enabled for deployment in the non-DHCP vSphere networks. But Mirantis recommends enabling IPAM in the DHCP-based networks as well. In this case, the dedicated IPAM range should not intersect with the IP range used in the DHCP server configuration for the provided vSphere network. Such configuration prevents issues with accidental IP address change for machines. For the issue details, see vSphere troubleshooting.

The following parameters are required to enable IPAM:

  • Network CIDR.

  • Network gateway address.

  • Minimum 1 DNS server.

  • IP address include range to be allocated for cluster machines. Make sure that this range is not part of the DHCP range if the network has a DHCP server.

    Minimal number of addresses in the range:

    • 3 IPs for management or regional cluster

    • 3+N IPs for a managed cluster, where N is the number of worker nodes

  • Optional. IP address exclude range that is the list of IPs not to be assigned to machines from the include ranges.

A dedicated Container Cloud network must not contain any virtual machines with the keepalived instance running inside them as this may lead to the vrouter_id conflict. By default, the Container Cloud management or regional cluster is deployed with vrouter_id set to 1. Managed clusters are deployed with the vrouter_id value starting from 2 and upper.

Equinix Metal with private networking

This section describes the architecture for a Mirantis Container Cloud deployment based on the Equinix Metal infrastructure using private networks.

Private networks are required for the following use cases:

  • Connect the Container Cloud to the on-premises corporate networks without exposing it to the Internet. This can be required by corporate security policies.

  • Reduce ingress and egress bandwidth costs and the number of public IP addresses utilized by the deployment. Public IP addresses are a scarce and valuable resource, and Container Cloud should only expose the necessary services in that address space.

  • Testing and staging environments typically do not require accepting connections from the outside of the cluster. Such Container Cloud clusters should be isolated in private VLANs.

The following diagram illustrates a high-level overview of the architecture. It covers the Container Cloud deployment across multiple Metros, marked as A and B on the diagram.

_images/equinix-v2-overview.png

Container Cloud clusters are isolated in private VLANs and do not use any public IP addresses. An external infrastructure allows exposing necessary services to the outside world. This external infrastructure must be provided by the Operator before installing Container Cloud.

Infrastructure prerequisites

A certain infrastructure must be deployed and configured by the Operator who installs the Container Cloud before the actual installation starts. This infrastructure must include the following elements, created and configured through the Equinix Metal UI or API and command line:

  • At least one node that provides the following services:

    Routers

    IP router service that connects all private networks in each Metro and allows managed clusters to communicate with the management cluster. It must be connected to all VLANs in a Metro, provide IP routing to the hosts connected to these VLANs, and act as the default router for all of them. In a multi-Metro case, it should have a VXLAN tunnel with all other routers in other Metros.

    DHCP Relay

    Forwards DHCP requests from the private network (VLAN) of the managed cluster to the DHCP server of the bare metal management service of Container Cloud. The DHCP server is placed in the VLAN of the management cluster.

    Proxy Server (optional)

    If direct access to the Internet from management or managed clusters is not desired, a proxy server can be used to provide access to the artifacts placed in the Container Cloud CDN and other external resources. Management and regional clusters require direct or proxy access to the Mirantis CDN to download artifacts and send encrypted telemetry.

  • Temporary seed node for the management cluster bootstrap

    The seed node should be deployed through the Equinix Metal console or API in the Metro where the management cluster will be deployed. This node must be attached to the VLAN that will be used by the management cluster.

  • Equinix Backend Transfer enabled in the current Container Cloud project

    Backend Transfer enables inter-Metro communication between managed and management clusters placed in different Metros.

Caution

Ensure that the IP subnets allocated to VLANs are not overlapping. Correctly and consistently configure the IP routing with allocation of IP addresses to management, regional, and managed clusters.

Before deploying Container Cloud, verify the following:

  • Subnets and IP ranges in the bootstrap templates to avoid CIDRs overlapping

  • Proxy configuration in the templates and environment variables

  • VLAN attachments to routers

Note

For an example of Terraform templates and Ansible playbooks to use for deployment and configuration of all components described above, see Container Cloud on Equinix Metal templates.

Design details

To improve isolation, each cluster is placed in its own private network (VLAN). All other connectivity, including access to the Equinix Metal internal network, is disabled on all nodes.

The following diagram illustrates a high-level overview of the architecture. It covers the Container Cloud deployment across multiple Metros, marked as A and B on the diagram.

_images/equinix-v2-overview.png
Main services configuration

The main element in the private networking architecture is the infrastructure-level IP routing provided by routers that are connected to the VLAN of each cluster by enabling communication between clusters.

Another critical service that routers provide is DHCP relay. It forwards DHCP/PXE requests from managed cluster nodes to the Ironic DHCP server in the management cluster.

Example configuration:

  • Metro A has 2 VLANS:

    • VLAN 1001 with the IP range 192.168.0.0/24 connected to the router interface bond0.1001 with the IP 192.168.0.1 for the management cluster

    • VLAN 1002 with IP range 192.168.1.0/24 connected to the router interface bond0.1002 with IP 192.168.1.1 for the managed cluster

  • The IP address of the Ironic DHCP server is 192.168.0.50

With these settings, the router should have the following configuration:

  • Forwarding between the bond0.1001 and bond0.1002 interfaces

  • Route for 192.168.0.0/24 via the bond0.1001 interface

  • Route for 192.168.1.0/24 via the bond0.1002 interface

  • DHCP relay on both bond0.1001 and bond0.1002 interfaces forwarding DHCP requests to 192.168.0.50

  • One of the following services:

    • SNAT for traffic from the 192.168.0.0/24 and 192.168.1.0/24 networks to the Internet or the proxy service

    • Proxy service for the Mirantis CDN and telemetry servers running on the router itself

During Container Cloud deployment, the seed node will have to:

  • Be deployed in Metro A

  • Be directly connected to VLAN 1001

  • Have access to the proxy service or the Internet

Managed clusters in different Metros

If users need to deploy clusters in different Metros, every Metro requires a separate router and VLAN configuration.

For example, Metro B has a separate router and 2 VLANS:

  • VLAN 2001 with the IP range 192.168.16.0/24 connected to the router interface bond0.2001 with the IP 192.168.16.1 for the management cluster

  • VLAN 2002 with the IP range 192.168.17.0/24 connected to the router interface bond0.2002 with the IP 192.168.17.1 for the managed cluster

With this configuration, to deploy managed clusters using the management cluster from Metro A, the router in Metro B should have the following configuration:

  • The VXLAN interface (or any other tunnel) vxlan1, for example, with the IP address 192.168.255.2 and the remote address of the router in Metro A

  • Forwarding between the bond0.2001, bond0.2002, and vxlan1 interfaces

  • Route for 192.168.16.0/24 via the bond0.1001 interface

  • Route for 192.168.17.0/24 via the bond0.1002 interface

  • Route for 192.168.0.0/20 via 192.168.255.1 that is the VXLAN address of the router in Metro A

  • DHCP relay on both bond0.1001 and bond0.1002 interfaces forwarding DHCP requests to 192.168.0.50

The router in Metro A requires additional configuration for:

  • The VXLAN interface (or any other tunnel) vxlan1, for example, with the IP address 192.168.255.1 and the remote address of the router in Metro B

  • Route for 192.168.16.0/20 via 192.168.255.2 that is the VXLAN address of the router in Metro B

Additional regional cluster

You can deploy a separate regional cluster in Metro B to reduce traffic between Metros. For example, if you use VLAN 2001 for the regional cluster, the router in Metro B requires additional configuration for:

  • DHCP relay on both bond0.2001 and bond0.2002 interfaces forwarding DHCP requests to 192.168.16.50 that is the IP address of the Ironic DHCP server in the regional cluster

  • SNAT or proxy service to allow the regional cluster access to the Mirantis CDN and telemetry

During regional cluster deployment, the seed node for the regional cluster will have to:

  • Be deployed in Metro B

  • Be directly connected to VLAN 2001

  • Have access to the proxy service or the Internet

The following diagram illustrates the Container Cloud deployment with an additional regional cluster:

_images/equinix-v2-regional.png

Note

For an example of Terraform templates and Ansible playbooks to use for deployment and configuration of all components described above, see Container Cloud on Equinix Metal templates.

Kubernetes lifecycle management

The Kubernetes lifecycle management (LCM) engine in Mirantis Container Cloud consists of the following components:

LCM Controller

Responsible for all LCM operations. Consumes the LCMCluster object and orchestrates actions through LCM Agent.

LCM Agent

Relates only to Mirantis Kubernetes Engine (MKE) clusters deployed using Container Cloud, and is not used for attached MKE clusters. Runs on the target host. Executes Ansible playbooks in headless mode.

Helm Controller

Responsible for the Helm charts life cycle, is installed by a cloud provider as a Helm v3 chart.

The Kubernetes LCM components handle the following custom resources:

  • LCMCluster

  • LCMMachine

  • HelmBundle

The following diagram illustrates handling of the LCM custom resources by the Kubernetes LCM components. On a managed cluster, apiserver handles multiple Kubernetes objects, for example, deployments, nodes, RBAC, and so on.

_images/lcm-components.png
LCM custom resources

The Kubernetes LCM components handle the following custom resources (CRs):

  • LCMMachine

  • LCMCluster

  • HelmBundle

LCMMachine

Describes a machine that is located on a cluster. It contains the machine type, control or worker, StateItems that correspond to Ansible playbooks and miscellaneous actions, for example, downloading a file or executing a shell command. LCMMachine reflects the current state of the machine, for example, a node IP address, and each StateItem through its status. Multiple LCMMachine CRs can correspond to a single cluster.

LCMCluster

Describes a managed cluster. In its spec, LCMCluster contains a set of StateItems for each type of LCMMachine, which describe the actions that must be performed to deploy the cluster. LCMCluster is created by the provider, using machineTypes of the Release object. The status field of LCMCluster reflects the status of the cluster, for example, the number of ready or requested nodes.

HelmBundle

Wrapper for Helm charts that is handled by Helm Controller. HelmBundle tracks what Helm charts must be installed on a managed cluster.

LCM Controller

LCM Controller runs on the management and regional cluster and orchestrates the LCMMachine objects according to their type and their LCMCluster object.

Once the LCMCluster and LCMMachine objects are created, LCM Controller starts monitoring them to modify the spec fields and update the status fields of the LCMMachine objects when required. The status field of LCMMachine is updated by LCM Agent running on a node of a management, regional, or managed cluster.

Each LCMMachine has the following lifecycle states:

  1. Uninitialized - the machine is not yet assigned to an LCMCluster.

  2. Pending - the agent reports a node IP address and host name.

  3. Prepare - the machine executes StateItems that correspond to the prepare phase. This phase usually involves downloading the necessary archives and packages.

  4. Deploy - the machine executes StateItems that correspond to the deploy phase that is becoming a Mirantis Kubernetes Engine (MKE) node.

  5. Ready - the machine is being deployed.

  6. Upgrade - the machine is being upgraded to the new MKE version.

  7. Reconfigure - the machine executes StateItems that correspond to the reconfigure phase. The machine configuration is being updated without affecting workloads running on the machine.

The templates for StateItems are stored in the machineTypes field of an LCMCluster object, with separate lists for the MKE manager and worker nodes. Each StateItem has the execution phase field for a management, regional, and managed cluster:

  1. The prepare phase is executed for all machines for which it was not executed yet. This phase comprises downloading the files necessary for the cluster deployment, installing the required packages, and so on.

  2. During the deploy phase, a node is added to the cluster. LCM Controller applies the deploy phase to the nodes in the following order:

    1. First manager node is deployed.

    2. The remaining manager nodes are deployed one by one and the worker nodes are deployed in batches (by default, up to 50 worker nodes at the same time).

LCM Controller deploys and upgrades a Mirantis Container Cloud cluster by setting StateItems of LCMMachine objects following the corresponding StateItems phases described above. The Container Cloud cluster upgrade process follows the same logic that is used for a new deployment, that is applying a new set of StateItems to the LCMMachines after updating the LCMCluster object. But if the existing worker node is being upgraded, LCM Controller performs draining and cordoning on this node honoring the Pod Disruption Budgets. This operation prevents unexpected disruptions of the workloads.

LCM Agent

LCM Agent handles a single machine that belongs to a management, regional, or managed cluster. It runs on the machine operating system but communicates with apiserver of the regional cluster. LCM Agent is deployed as a systemd unit using cloud-init. LCM Agent has a built-in self-upgrade mechanism.

LCM Agent monitors the spec of a particular LCMMachine object to reconcile the machine state with the object StateItems and update the LCMMachine status accordingly. The actions that LCM Agent performs while handling the StateItems are as follows:

  • Download configuration files

  • Run shell commands

  • Run Ansible playbooks in headless mode

LCM Agent provides the IP address and hostname of the machine for the LCMMachine status parameter.

Helm Controller

Helm Controller is used by Mirantis Container Cloud to handle management, regional, and managed clusters core addons such as StackLight and the application addons such as the OpenStack components.

Note

  • Before Container Cloud 2.19.0, to support Helm v2 releases, the Tiller process runs in the same Pod as Helm Controller. The Tiller gRPC endpoint is not accessible outside the Pod.

  • Since Container Cloud 2.19.0, Helm v2 is not supported and Tiller is removed.

Helm Controller is installed as a separate Helm v3 chart by the Container Cloud provider. Its Pods are created using Deployment.

The Helm release information is stored in the KaaSRelease object for the management and regional clusters and in the ClusterRelease object for all types of the Container Cloud clusters. These objects are used by the Container Cloud provider. The Container Cloud provider uses the information from the ClusterRelease object together with the Container Cloud API Cluster spec. In Cluster spec, the operator can specify the Helm release name and charts to use. By combining the information from the Cluster providerSpec parameter and its ClusterRelease object, the cluster actuator generates the LCMCluster objects. These objects are further handled by LCM Controller and the HelmBundle object handled by Helm Controller. HelmBundle must have the same name as the LCMCluster object for the cluster that HelmBundle applies to.

Although a cluster actuator can only create a single HelmBundle per cluster, Helm Controller can handle multiple HelmBundle objects per cluster.

Helm Controller handles the HelmBundle objects and reconciles them with the state of Helm in its cluster.

Helm Controller can also be used by the management cluster with corresponding HelmBundle objects created as part of the initial management cluster setup.

Identity and access management

Identity and access management (IAM) provides a central point of users and permissions management of the Mirantis Container Cloud cluster resources in a granular and unified manner. Also, IAM provides infrastructure for single sign-on user experience across all Container Cloud web portals.

IAM for Container Cloud consists of the following components:

Keycloak
  • Provides the OpenID Connect endpoint

  • Integrates with an external identity provider (IdP), for example, existing LDAP or Google Open Authorization (OAuth)

  • Stores roles mapping for users

IAM Controller
  • Provides IAM API with data about Container Cloud projects

  • Handles all role-based access control (RBAC) components in Kubernetes API

IAM API

Provides an abstraction API for creating user scopes and roles

External identity provider integration

To be consistent and keep the integrity of a user database and user permissions, in Mirantis Container Cloud, IAM stores the user identity information internally. However in real deployments, the identity provider usually already exists.

Out of the box, in Container Cloud, IAM supports integration with LDAP and Google Open Authorization (OAuth). If LDAP is configured as an external identity provider, IAM performs one-way synchronization by mapping attributes according to configuration.

In the case of the Google Open Authorization (OAuth) integration, the user is automatically registered and their credentials are stored in the internal database according to the user template configuration. The Google OAuth registration workflow is as follows:

  1. The user requests a Container Cloud web UI resource.

  2. The user is redirected to the IAM login page and logs in using the Log in with Google account option.

  3. IAM creates a new user with the default access rights that are defined in the user template configuration.

  4. The user can access the Container Cloud web UI resource.

The following diagram illustrates the external IdP integration to IAM:

_images/iam-ext-idp.png

You can configure simultaneous integration with both external IdPs with the user identity matching feature enabled.

Authentication and authorization

Mirantis IAM uses the OpenID Connect (OIDC) protocol for handling authentication.

Implementation flow

Mirantis IAM performs as an OpenID Connect (OIDC) provider, it issues a token and exposes discovery endpoints.

The credentials can be handled by IAM itself or delegated to an external identity provider (IdP).

The issued JSON Web Token (JWT) is sufficient to perform operations across Mirantis Container Cloud according to the scope and role defined in it. Mirantis recommends using asymmetric cryptography for token signing (RS256) to minimize the dependency between IAM and managed components.

When Container Cloud calls Mirantis Kubernetes Engine (MKE), the user in Keycloak is created automatically with a JWT issued by Keycloak on behalf of the end user. MKE, in its turn, verifies whether the JWT is issued by Keycloak. If the user retrieved from the token does not exist in the MKE database, the user is automatically created in the MKE database based on the information from the token.

The authorization implementation is out of the scope of IAM in Container Cloud. This functionality is delegated to the component level. IAM interacts with a Container Cloud component using the OIDC token content that is processed by a component itself and required authorization is enforced. Such an approach enables you to have any underlying authorization that is not dependent on IAM and still to provide a unified user experience across all Container Cloud components.

Kubernetes CLI authentication flow

The following diagram illustrates the Kubernetes CLI authentication flow. The authentication flow for Helm and other Kubernetes-oriented CLI utilities is identical to the Kubernetes CLI flow, but JSON Web Tokens (JWT) must be pre-provisioned.

_images/iam-authn-k8s.png

See also

IAM resources

Storage

The baremetal-based or Equinix Metal based Mirantis Container Cloud uses Ceph as a distributed storage system for file, block, and object storage. This section provides an overview of a Ceph cluster deployed by Container Cloud.

Overview

Mirantis Container Cloud deploys Ceph on the baremetal and Equinix Metal based managed clusters using Helm charts with the following components:

Ceph changes in Container Cloud 2.20

  • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, the Ceph cluster does not deploy on management and regional clusters to reduce resource consumption.

  • Ceph cluster is automatically removed from existing management and regional clusters during the Container Cloud update to 2.20.0.

  • Managed clusters continue using Ceph as a distributed storage system.

Rook Ceph Operator

A storage orchestrator that deploys Ceph on top of a Kubernetes cluster. Also known as Rook or Rook Operator. Rook operations include:

  • Deploying and managing a Ceph cluster based on provided Rook CRs such as CephCluster, CephBlockPool, CephObjectStore, and so on.

  • Orchestrating the state of the Ceph cluster and all its daemons.

KaaSCephCluster custom resource (CR)

Represents the customization of a Kubernetes installation and allows you to define the required Ceph configuration through the Container Cloud web UI before deployment. For example, you can define the failure domain, Ceph pools, Ceph node roles, number of Ceph components such as Ceph OSDs, and so on. The ceph-kcc-controller controller on the Container Cloud management cluster manages the KaaSCephCluster CR.

Ceph Controller

A Kubernetes controller that obtains the parameters from Container Cloud through a CR, creates CRs for Rook and updates its CR status based on the Ceph cluster deployment progress. It creates users, pools, and keys for OpenStack and Kubernetes and provides Ceph configurations and keys to access them. Also, Ceph Controller eventually obtains the data from the OpenStack Controller for the Keystone integration and updates the RADOS Gateway services configurations to use Kubernetes for user authentication. Ceph Controller operations include:

  • Transforming user parameters from the Container Cloud Ceph CR into Rook CRs and deploying a Ceph cluster using Rook.

  • Providing integration of the Ceph cluster with Kubernetes.

  • Providing data for OpenStack to integrate with the deployed Ceph cluster.

Ceph Status Controller

A Kubernetes controller that collects all valuable parameters from the current Ceph cluster, its daemons, and entities and exposes them into the KaaSCephCluster status. Ceph Status Controller operations include:

  • Collecting all statuses from a Ceph cluster and corresponding Rook CRs.

  • Collecting additional information on the health of Ceph daemons.

  • Provides information to the status section of the KaaSCephCluster CR.

Ceph Request Controller

A Kubernetes controller that obtains the parameters from Container Cloud through a CR and manages Ceph OSD lifecycle management (LCM) operations. It allows for a safe Ceph OSD removal from the Ceph cluster. Ceph Request Controller operations include:

  • Providing an ability to perform Ceph OSD LCM operations.

  • Obtaining specific CRs to remove Ceph OSDs and executing them.

  • Pausing the regular Ceph Controller reconcile until all requests are completed.

A typical Ceph cluster consists of the following components:

  • Ceph Monitors - three or, in rare cases, five Ceph Monitors.

  • Ceph Managers - one Ceph Manager in a regular cluster.

  • RADOS Gateway services - Mirantis recommends having three or more RADOS Gateway instances for HA.

  • Ceph OSDs - the number of Ceph OSDs may vary according to the deployment needs.

    Warning

    • A Ceph cluster with 3 Ceph nodes does not provide hardware fault tolerance and is not eligible for recovery operations, such as a disk or an entire Ceph node replacement.

    • A Ceph cluster uses the replication factor that equals 3. If the number of Ceph OSDs is less than 3, a Ceph cluster moves to the degraded state with the write operations restriction until the number of alive Ceph OSDs equals the replication factor again.

The placement of Ceph Monitors and Ceph Managers is defined in the KaaSCephCluster CR.

The following diagram illustrates the way a Ceph cluster is deployed in Container Cloud:

_images/ceph-deployment.png

The following diagram illustrates the processes within a deployed Ceph cluster:

_images/ceph-data-flow.png
Limitations

Ceph changes in Container Cloud 2.20

  • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, the Ceph cluster does not deploy on management and regional clusters to reduce resource consumption.

  • Ceph cluster is automatically removed from existing management and regional clusters during the Container Cloud update to 2.20.0.

  • Managed clusters continue using Ceph as a distributed storage system.

A Ceph cluster configuration in Mirantis Container Cloud includes but is not limited to the following limitations:

  • Only one Ceph Controller per a managed cluster and only one Ceph cluster per Ceph Controller are supported.

  • The replication size for any Ceph pool must be set to more than 1.

  • Only one CRUSH tree per cluster. The separation of devices per Ceph pool is supported through device classes with only one pool of each type for a device class.

  • All CRUSH rules must have the same failure_domain.

  • Only the following types of CRUSH buckets are supported:

    • topology.kubernetes.io/region

    • topology.kubernetes.io/zone

    • topology.rook.io/datacenter

    • topology.rook.io/room

    • topology.rook.io/pod

    • topology.rook.io/pdu

    • topology.rook.io/row

    • topology.rook.io/rack

    • topology.rook.io/chassis

  • Consuming an existing Ceph cluster is not supported.

  • CephFS is not fully supported TechPreview.

  • Only IPv4 is supported.

  • If two or more Ceph OSDs are located on the same device, there must be no dedicated WAL or DB for this class.

  • Only a full collocation or dedicated WAL and DB configurations are supported.

  • The minimum size of any defined Ceph OSD device is 5 GB.

  • Reducing the number of Ceph Monitors is not supported and causes the Ceph Monitor daemons removal from random nodes.

  • Removal of the mgr role in the nodes section of the KaaSCephCluster CR does not remove Ceph Managers. To remove a Ceph Manager from a node, remove it from the nodes spec and manually delete the mgr pod in the Rook namespace.

  • When adding a Ceph node with the Ceph Monitor role, if any issues occur with the Ceph Monitor, rook-ceph removes it and adds a new Ceph Monitor instead, named using the next alphabetic character in order. Therefore, the Ceph Monitor names may not follow the alphabetical order. For example, a, b, d, instead of a, b, c.

Monitoring

Mirantis Container Cloud uses StackLight, the logging, monitoring, and alerting solution that provides a single pane of glass for cloud maintenance and day-to-day operations as well as offers critical insights into cloud health including operational information about the components deployed in management, regional, and managed clusters. StackLight is based on Prometheus, an open-source monitoring solution and a time series database.

Deployment architecture

Mirantis Container Cloud deploys the StackLight stack as a release of a Helm chart that contains the helm-controller and helmbundles.lcm.mirantis.com (HelmBundle) custom resources. The StackLight HelmBundle consists of a set of Helm charts with the StackLight components that include:

StackLight components overview

StackLight component

Description

Alerta

Receives, consolidates, and deduplicates the alerts sent by Alertmanager and visually represents them through a simple web UI. Using the Alerta web UI, you can view the most recent or watched alerts, group, and filter alerts.

Alertmanager

Handles the alerts sent by client applications such as Prometheus, deduplicates, groups, and routes alerts to receiver integrations. Using the Alertmanager web UI, you can view the most recent fired alerts, silence them, or view the Alertmanager configuration.

Elasticsearch Curator

Maintains the data (indexes) in OpenSearch 0 by performing such operations as creating, closing, or opening an index as well as deleting a snapshot. Also, manages the data retention policy in OpenSearch.

Elasticsearch Exporter Compatible with OpenSearch since 2.17.0

The Prometheus exporter that gathers internal OpenSearch metrics.

Grafana

Builds and visually represents metric graphs based on time series databases. Grafana supports querying of Prometheus using the PromQL language.

Database back ends

StackLight uses PostgreSQL for Alerta and Grafana. PostgreSQL reduces the data storage fragmentation while enabling high availability. High availability is achieved using Patroni, the PostgreSQL cluster manager that monitors for node failures and manages failover of the primary node. StackLight also uses Patroni to manage major version upgrades of PostgreSQL clusters, which allows leveraging the database engine functionality and improvements as they are introduced upstream in new releases, maintaining functional continuity without version lock-in.

Logging stack

Responsible for collecting, processing, and persisting logs and Kubernetes events. By default, when deploying through the Container Cloud web UI, only the metrics stack is enabled on managed clusters. To enable StackLight to gather managed cluster logs, enable the logging stack during deployment. On management clusters, the logging stack is enabled by default. The logging stack components include:

  • OpenSearch, which stores logs and notifications.

  • Fluentd-logs, which collects logs, sends them to OpenSearch, generates metrics based on analysis of incoming log entries, and exposes these metrics to Prometheus.

  • OpenSearch Dashboards 0, which provides real-time visualization of the data stored in OpenSearch and enables you to detect issues.

  • Metricbeat, which collects Kubernetes events and sends them to OpenSearch for storage.

  • Prometheus-es-exporter, which presents the OpenSearch data as Prometheus metrics by periodically sending configured queries to the OpenSearch cluster and exposing the results to a scrapable HTTP endpoint like other Prometheus targets.

  • Optional. Cerebro, a web UI for managing the OpenSearch cluster. Using the Cerebro web UI, you can get a detailed view on your OpenSearch cluster and debug issues. Cerebro is disabled by default.

Note

The logging mechanism performance depends on the cluster log load. In case of a high load, you may need to increase the default resource requests and limits for fluentdLogs. For details, see StackLight configuration parameters: Resource limits.

Metric collector

Collects telemetry data (CPU or memory usage, number of active alerts, and so on) from Prometheus and sends the data to centralized cloud storage for further processing and analysis. Metric collector runs on the management cluster.

Prometheus

Gathers metrics. Automatically discovers and monitors the endpoints. Using the Prometheus web UI, you can view simple visualizations and debug. By default, the Prometheus database stores metrics of the past 15 days or up to 15 GB of data depending on the limit that is reached first.

Prometheus Blackbox Exporter

Allows monitoring endpoints over HTTP, HTTPS, DNS, TCP, and ICMP.

Prometheus-es-exporter

Presents the OpenSearch data as Prometheus metrics by periodically sending configured queries to the OpenSearch cluster and exposing the results to a scrapable HTTP endpoint like other Prometheus targets.

Prometheus Node Exporter

Gathers hardware and operating system metrics exposed by kernel.

Prometheus Relay

Adds a proxy layer to Prometheus to merge the results from underlay Prometheus servers to prevent gaps in case some data is missing on some servers. Is available only in the HA StackLight mode.

Pushgateway

Enables ephemeral and batch jobs to expose their metrics to Prometheus. Since these jobs may not exist long enough to be scraped, they can instead push their metrics to Pushgateway, which then exposes these metrics to Prometheus. Pushgateway is not an aggregator or a distributed counter but rather a metrics cache. The pushed metrics are exactly the same as scraped from a permanently running program.

Salesforce notifier

Enables sending Alertmanager notifications to Salesforce to allow creating Salesforce cases and closing them once the alerts are resolved. Disabled by default.

Salesforce reporter

Queries Prometheus for the data about the amount of vCPU, vRAM, and vStorage used and available, combines the data, and sends it to Salesforce daily. Mirantis uses the collected data for further analysis and reports to improve the quality of customer support. Disabled by default.

Telegraf

Collects metrics from the system. Telegraf is plugin-driven and has the concept of two distinct set of plugins: input plugins collect metrics from the system, services, or third-party APIs; output plugins write and expose metrics to various destinations.

The Telegraf agents used in Container Cloud include:

  • telegraf-ds-smart monitors SMART disks, and runs on both management and managed clusters.

  • telegraf-ironic monitors Ironic on the baremetal-based management clusters. The ironic input plugin collects and processes data from Ironic HTTP API, while the http_response input plugin checks Ironic HTTP API availability. As an output plugin, to expose collected data as Prometheus target, Telegraf uses prometheus.

  • telegraf-docker-swarm gathers metrics from the Mirantis Container Runtime API about the Docker nodes, networks, and Swarm services. This is a Docker Telegraf input plugin with downstream additions.

Telemeter

Enables a multi-cluster view through a Grafana dashboard of the management cluster. Telemeter includes a Prometheus federation push server and clients to enable isolated Prometheus instances, which cannot be scraped from a central Prometheus instance, to push metrics to the central location.

The Telemeter services are distributed as follows:

  • Management cluster hosts the Telemeter server

  • Regional clusters host the Telemeter server and Telemeter client

  • Managed clusters host the Telemeter client

The metrics from managed clusters are aggregated on regional clusters. Then both regional and managed clusters metrics are sent from regional clusters to the management cluster.

Every Helm chart contains a default values.yml file. These default values are partially overridden by custom values defined in the StackLight Helm chart.

Before deploying a managed cluster, you can select the HA or non-HA StackLight architecture type. The non-HA mode is set by default. On the management and regional clusters, StackLight is deployed in the HA mode only. The following table lists the differences between the HA and non-HA modes:

StackLight database modes

Non-HA StackLight mode default

HA StackLight mode

  • One Prometheus instance

  • One OpenSearch instance

  • One PostgreSQL instance

One persistent volume is provided for storing data. In case of a service or node failure, a new pod is redeployed and the volume is reattached to provide the existing data. Such setup has a reduced hardware footprint but provides less performance.

  • Two Prometheus instances

  • Three OpenSearch instances

  • Three PostgreSQL instances

Local Volume Provisioner is used to provide local host storage. In case of a service or node failure, the traffic is automatically redirected to any other running Prometheus or OpenSearch server. For better performance, Mirantis recommends that you deploy StackLight in the HA mode.

Depending on the Container Cloud cluster type and selected StackLight database mode, StackLight is deployed on the following number of nodes:

StackLight database modes

Cluster

StackLight database mode

Target nodes

Management and regional

HA mode

All Kubernetes master nodes

Managed

Non-HA mode

  • All nodes with the stacklight label.

  • If no nodes have the stacklight label, StackLight is spread across all worker nodes. The minimal requirement is at least 1 worker node.

HA mode

All nodes with the stacklight label. The minimal requirement is 3 nodes with the stacklight label. Otherwise, StackLight deployment does not start.

0(1,2)

Starting from Container Cloud 2.16.0, Elasticsearch has switched to OpenSearch and Kibana has switched to OpenSearch Dashboards. For details, see Elasticsearch switch to OpenSearch and Elasticsearch switch to OpenSearch.

Authentication flow

StackLight provides five web UIs including Prometheus, Alertmanager, Alerta, OpenSearch Dashboards, and Grafana. Access to StackLight web UIs is protected by Keycloak-based Identity and access management (IAM). All web UIs except Alerta are exposed to IAM through the IAM proxy middleware. The Alerta configuration provides direct integration with IAM.

The following diagram illustrates accessing the IAM-proxied StackLight web UIs, for example, Prometheus web UI:

_images/sl-auth-iam-proxied.png

Authentication flow for the IAM-proxied StackLight web UIs:

  1. A user enters the public IP of a StackLight web UI, for example, Prometheus web UI.

  2. The public IP leads to IAM proxy, deployed as a Kubernetes LoadBalancer, which protects the Prometheus web UI.

  3. LoadBalancer routes the HTTP request to Kubernetes internal IAM proxy service endpoints, specified in the X-Forwarded-Proto or X-Forwarded-Host headers.

  4. The Keycloak login form opens (the login_url field in the IAM proxy configuration, which points to Keycloak realm) and the user enters the user name and password.

  5. Keycloak validates the user name and password.

  6. The user obtains access to the Prometheus web UI (the upstreams field in the IAM proxy configuration).

Note

  • The discovery URL is the URL of the IAM service.

  • The upstream URL is the hidden endpoint of a web UI (Prometheus web UI in the example above).

The following diagram illustrates accessing the Alerta web UI:

_images/sl-authentication-direct.png

Authentication flow for the Alerta web UI:

  1. A user enters the public IP of the Alerta web UI.

  2. The public IP leads to Alerta deployed as a Kubernetes LoadBalancer type.

  3. LoadBalancer routes the HTTP request to the Kubernetes internal Alerta service endpoint.

  4. The Keycloak login form opens (Alerta refers to the IAM realm) and the user enters the user name and password.

  5. Keycloak validates the user name and password.

  6. The user obtains access to the Alerta web UI.

Supported features

Using the Mirantis Container Cloud web UI, on the pre-deployment stage of a managed cluster, you can view, enable or disable, or tune the following StackLight features available:

  • StackLight HA mode.

  • Database retention size and time for Prometheus.

  • Tunable index retention period for OpenSearch.

  • Tunable PersistentVolumeClaim (PVC) size for Prometheus and OpenSearch set to 16 GB for Prometheus and 30 GB for OpenSearch by default. The PVC size must be logically aligned with the retention periods or sizes for these components.

  • Email and Slack receivers for the Alertmanager notifications.

  • Predefined set of dashboards.

  • Predefined set of alerts and capability to add new custom alerts for Prometheus in the following exemplary format:

    - alert: HighErrorRate
      expr: job:request_latency_seconds:mean5m{job="myjob"} > 0.5
      for: 10m
      labels:
        severity: page
      annotations:
        summary: High request latency
    
Monitored components

StackLight measures, analyzes, and reports in a timely manner about failures that may occur in the following Mirantis Container Cloud components and their sub-components, if any:

  • Ceph

  • Ironic (Container Cloud bare-metal provider)

  • Kubernetes services:

    • Calico

    • etcd

    • Kubernetes cluster

    • Kubernetes containers

    • Kubernetes deployments

    • Kubernetes nodes

  • NGINX

  • Node hardware and operating system

  • PostgreSQL

  • SMART disks

  • StackLight:

    • Alertmanager

    • OpenSearch

    • Grafana

    • Prometheus

    • Prometheus Relay

    • Pushgateway

    • Salesforce notifier

    • Telemeter

  • SSL certificates

  • Mirantis Kubernetes Engine (MKE)

    • Docker/Swarm metrics (through Telegraf)

    • Built-in MKE metrics

Outbound cluster metrics

The data collected and transmitted through an encrypted channel back to Mirantis provides our Customer Success Organization information to better understand the operational usage patterns our customers are experiencing as well as to provide feedback on product usage statistics to enable our product teams to enhance our products and services for our customers.

The node-level resource data are broken down into three broad categories: Cluster, Node, and Namespace. The telemetry data tracks Allocatable, Capacity, Limits, Requests, and actual Usage of node-level resources.

Terms explanation

Term

Definition

Allocatable

On a Kubernetes Node, the amount of compute resources that are available for pods

Capacity

The total number of available resources regardless of current consumption

Limits

Constraints imposed by Administrators

Requests

The resources that a given container application is requesting

Usage

The actual usage or consumption of a given resource

The full list of the outbound data includes:

  • From all Container Cloud managed clusters:

    • If Ceph is enabled:

      • ceph_pool_available

      • ceph_pool_size

      • ceph_pool_used

    • cluster_filesystem_size_bytes

    • cluster_filesystem_usage_bytes

    • cluster_filesystem_usage_ratio

    • cluster_master_nodes_total

    • cluster_nodes_total

    • cluster_persistentvolumeclaim_requests_storage_bytes

    • cluster_total_alerts_triggered

    • cluster_capacity_cpu_cores

    • cluster_capacity_memory_bytes

    • cluster_usage_cpu_cores

    • cluster_usage_memory_bytes

    • cluster_usage_per_capacity_cpu_ratio

    • cluster_usage_per_capacity_memory_ratio

    • cluster_worker_nodes_total

    • kaas_info

    • kaas_cluster_machines_ready_total

    • kaas_cluster_machines_requested_total

    • kaas_clusters

    • kaas_license_expiry

    • kaas_machines_ready

    • kaas_machines_requested

    • kubernetes_api_availability

    • mke_api_availability

    • mke_cluster_nodes_total

    • mke_cluster_containers_total

    • mke_cluster_vcpu_free

    • mke_cluster_vcpu_used

    • mke_cluster_vram_free

    • mke_cluster_vram_used

    • mke_cluster_vstorage_free

    • mke_cluster_vstorage_used

  • From Mirantis OpenStack for Kubernetes (MOSK) clusters only:

    • openstack_cinder_api_latency_90

    • openstack_cinder_api_latency_99

    • openstack_cinder_api_status

    • openstack_cinder_availability

    • openstack_cinder_volumes_total

    • openstack_glance_api_status

    • openstack_glance_availability

    • openstack_glance_images_total

    • openstack_glance_snapshots_total

    • openstack_heat_availability

    • openstack_heat_stacks_total

    • openstack_host_aggregate_instances

    • openstack_host_aggregate_memory_used_ratio

    • openstack_host_aggregate_memory_utilisation_ratio

    • openstack_host_aggregate_cpu_utilisation_ratio

    • openstack_host_aggregate_vcpu_used_ratio

    • openstack_instance_availability

    • openstack_instance_create_end

    • openstack_instance_create_error

    • openstack_instance_create_start

    • openstack_keystone_api_latency_90

    • openstack_keystone_api_latency_99

    • openstack_keystone_api_status

    • openstack_keystone_availability

    • openstack_keystone_tenants_total

    • openstack_keystone_users_total

    • openstack_kpi_provisioning

    • openstack_lbaas_availability

    • openstack_mysql_flow_control

    • openstack_neutron_api_latency_90

    • openstack_neutron_api_latency_99

    • openstack_neutron_api_status

    • openstack_neutron_availability

    • openstack_neutron_lbaas_loadbalancers_total

    • openstack_neutron_networks_total

    • openstack_neutron_ports_total

    • openstack_neutron_routers_total

    • openstack_neutron_subnets_total

    • openstack_nova_all_compute_cpu_utilisation Since MOSK 22.4

    • openstack_nova_all_compute_mem_utilisation Since MOSK 22.4

    • openstack_nova_all_computes_total Since MOSK 22.4

    • openstack_nova_all_vcpus_total Since MOSK 22.4

    • openstack_nova_all_used_vcpus_total Since MOSK 22.4

    • openstack_nova_all_ram_total_gb Since MOSK 22.4

    • openstack_nova_all_used_ram_total_gb Since MOSK 22.4

    • openstack_nova_all_disk_total_gb Since MOSK 22.4

    • openstack_nova_all_used_disk_total_gb Since MOSK 22.4

    • openstack_nova_api_status

    • openstack_nova_availability

    • openstack_nova_compute_cpu_utilisation

    • openstack_nova_compute_mem_utilisation

    • openstack_nova_computes_total

    • openstack_nova_disk_total_gb

    • openstack_nova_instances_active_total

    • openstack_nova_ram_total_gb

    • openstack_nova_used_disk_total_gb

    • openstack_nova_used_ram_total_gb

    • openstack_nova_used_vcpus_total

    • openstack_nova_vcpus_total

    • openstack_rmq_message_deriv

    • openstack_quota_instances

    • openstack_quota_ram_gb

    • openstack_quota_vcpus

    • openstack_quota_volume_storage_gb

    • openstack_usage_instances

    • openstack_usage_ram_gb

    • openstack_usage_vcpus

    • openstack_usage_volume_storage_gb

StackLight proxy

StackLight components, which require external access, automatically use the same proxy that is configured for Mirantis Container Cloud clusters. Therefore, you only need to configure proxy during deployment of your management, regional, or managed clusters. No additional actions are required to set up proxy for StackLight. For more details about implementation of proxy support in Container Cloud, see Proxy and cache support.

Note

Proxy handles only the HTTP and HTTPS traffic. Therefore, for clusters with limited or no Internet access, it is not possible to set up Alertmanager email notifications, which use SMTP, when proxy is used.

Proxy is used for the following StackLight components:

Component

Cluster type

Usage

Alertmanager

Any

As a default http_config for all HTTP-based receivers except the predefined HTTP-alerta and HTTP-salesforce. For these receivers, http_config is overridden on the receiver level.

Metric collector

Management

To send outbound cluster metrics to Mirantis.

Salesforce notifier

Any

To send notifications to the Salesforce instance.

Salesforce reporter

Any

To send metric reports to the Salesforce instance.

Telemeter client

Regional

To send all metrics from the clusters of a region, including the managed and regional clusters, to the management cluster. Proxy is not used for the Telemeter client on managed clusters because managed clusters must have a direct access to their regional cluster.

Hardware and system requirements

Using Mirantis Container Cloud, you can deploy a Mirantis Kubernetes Engine (MKE) cluster on bare metal, OpenStack, Microsoft Azure, VMware vSphere, Equinix Metal, or Amazon Web Services (AWS). Each cloud provider requires corresponding resources.

Note

Using the free Mirantis license, you can create up to three Container Cloud managed clusters with three worker nodes on each cluster. Within the same quota, you can also attach existing MKE clusters that are not deployed by Container Cloud. If you need to increase this quota, contact Mirantis support for further details.

Requirements for a bootstrap node

A bootstrap node is necessary only to deploy the management cluster. When the bootstrap is complete, the bootstrap node can be redeployed and its resources can be reused for the managed cluster workloads.

The minimum reference system requirements of a baremetal-based bootstrap seed node are described in System requirements for the seed node. The minimum reference system requirements a bootstrap node for other supported Container Cloud providers are as follows:

  • Any local machine on Ubuntu 20.04 that requires access to the provider API with the following configuration:

    • 2 vCPUs

    • 4 GB of RAM

    • 5 GB of available storage

    • Docker version currently available for Ubuntu 20.04

  • Internet access for downloading of all required artifacts

Note

For the vSphere cloud provider, you can use RHEL 7.9 as the operating system for the bootstrap node. The system requirements are the same as for Ubuntu.

Note

For the Equinix Metal cloud provider with private networks, a bootstrap node must be attached to the VLAN that will be used to deploy a management cluster.

Requirements for a baremetal-based cluster

If you use a firewall or proxy, make sure that the bootstrap, management, and regional clusters have access to the following IP ranges and domain names:

  • IP ranges:

  • Domain names:

    • mirror.mirantis.com and repos.mirantis.com for packages

    • binary.mirantis.com for binaries and Helm charts

    • mirantis.azurecr.io and *.blob.core.windows.net for Docker images

    • mcc-metrics-prod-ns.servicebus.windows.net:9093 for Telemetry (port 443 if proxy is enabled)

    • mirantis.my.salesforce.com and login.salesforce.com for Salesforce alerts

Note

  • Access to Salesforce is required from any Container Cloud cluster type.

  • If any additional Alertmanager notification receiver is enabled, for example, Slack, its endpoint must also be accessible from the cluster.

Reference hardware configuration

The following hardware configuration is used as a reference to deploy Mirantis Container Cloud with bare metal Container Cloud clusters with Mirantis Kubernetes Engine.

Reference hardware configuration for Container Cloud management and managed clusters on bare metal

Server role

Management cluster

Managed cluster

# of servers 0

3 1

6 2

CPU sockets

1

1

RAM, GB

128

128

SSD system, GB 3

1x 960

1x 960

SSD/HDD storage, GB 4

1x 1900

2x 1900

Onboard LAN ports

2

2

Discrete NICs

2

2

Total LAN ports 5

6

6

0

The Container Cloud reference architecture uses the following hardware models:

  • Server - Supermicro 1U SYS-6018R-TDW

  • CPU - Intel Xeon E5-2620v4

  • Discrete NICs - Intel X520-DA2

1

Adding more than 3 nodes to a management or regional cluster is not supported.

2

Three manager nodes for HA and three worker storage nodes for a minimal Ceph cluster. For more details about Ceph requirements, see Management cluster storage.

3

A management cluster requires 2 volumes for Container Cloud (total 50 GB) and 5 volumes for StackLight (total 60 GB). A managed cluster requires 5 volumes for StackLight.

4

In total, at least 2 disks are required:

  • sda - minimum 120 GB for system

  • sdb - minimum 120 GB for LocalVolumeProvisioner

Before Container Cloud 2.20.0, third disk sdc with 1900 GB SSD/HDD storage is required dor Ceph OSD.

Ceph changes in Container Cloud 2.20

  • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, the Ceph cluster does not deploy on management and regional clusters to reduce resource consumption.

  • Ceph cluster is automatically removed from existing management and regional clusters during the Container Cloud update to 2.20.0.

  • Managed clusters continue using Ceph as a distributed storage system.

For the default storage schema, see Default configuration of the host system storage

5

Only one PXE port per node is allowed. OOB management (IPMI) port is not included.

System requirements for the seed node

The seed node is necessary only to deploy the management cluster. When the bootstrap is complete, the bootstrap node can be redeployed and its resources can be reused for the managed cluster workloads.

The minimum reference system requirements for a baremetal-based bootstrap seed node are as follows:

  • Basic server on Ubuntu 20.04 with the following configuration:

    • Kernel version 4.15.0-76.86 or later

    • 8 GB of RAM

    • 4 CPU

    • 10 GB of free disk space for the bootstrap cluster cache

  • No DHCP or TFTP servers on any NIC networks

  • Routable access IPMI network for the hardware servers. For more details, see Host networking.

  • Internet access for downloading of all required artifacts

Network fabric

The following diagram illustrates the physical and virtual L2 underlay networking schema for the final state of the Mirantis Container Cloud bare metal deployment.

_images/bm-cluster-physical-and-l2-networking.png

The network fabric reference configuration is a spine/leaf with 2 leaf ToR switches and one out-of-band (OOB) switch per rack.

Reference configuration uses the following switches for ToR and OOB:

  • Cisco WS-C3560E-24TD has 24 of 1 GbE ports. Used in OOB network segment.

  • Dell Force 10 S4810P has 48 of 1/10GbE ports. Used as ToR in Common/PXE network segment.

In the reference configuration, all odd interfaces from NIC0 are connected to TOR Switch 1, and all even interfaces from NIC0 are connected to TOR Switch 2. The Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) interfaces of the servers are connected to OOB Switch 1.

The following recommendations apply to all types of nodes:

  • Use the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) bonding mode with MC-LAG domains configured on leaf switches. This corresponds to the 802.3ad bond mode on hosts.

  • Use ports from different multi-port NICs when creating bonds. This makes network connections redundant if failure of a single NIC occurs.

  • Configure the ports that connect servers to the PXE network with PXE VLAN as native or untagged. On these ports, configure LACP fallback to ensure that the servers can reach DHCP server and boot over network.

Management cluster storage

The management cluster requires minimum two storage devices per node. Each device is used for different type of storage.

  • The first device is always used for boot partitions and the root file system. SSD is recommended. RAID device is not supported.

  • One storage device per server is reserved for local persistent volumes. These volumes are served by the Local Storage Static Provisioner (local-volume-provisioner) and used by many services of Container Cloud.

  • Before Container Cloud 2.20.0, the management cluster requires minimum three storage devices per node.

    • At least one disk per server must be configured as a device managed by a Ceph OSD.

    • The recommended number of Ceph OSDs per a management cluster node is 2 OSDs per node, to the total of 6 OSDs. The recommended replication factor 3 ensures that no data is lost if any single node of the management cluster fails.

    Ceph changes in Container Cloud 2.20

    • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, the Ceph cluster does not deploy on management and regional clusters to reduce resource consumption.

    • Ceph cluster is automatically removed from existing management and regional clusters during the Container Cloud update to 2.20.0.

    • Managed clusters continue using Ceph as a distributed storage system.

You can configure host storage devices using the BareMetalHostProfile resources. For details, see Customize the default bare metal host profile.

Requirements for an OpenStack-based cluster

While planning the deployment of an OpenStack-based Mirantis Container Cloud cluster with Mirantis Kubernetes Engine (MKE), consider the following general requirements:

  • Kubernetes on OpenStack requires the Cinder and Octavia APIs availability.

  • Since Container Cloud 2.17.0, Mirantis supports deployments based on OpenStack Victoria with Tungsten Fabric (TF) on top of Mirantis OpenStack for Kubernetes (MOSK) Victoria with TF.

  • Before Container Cloud 2.17.0, the only supported networking for OpenStack is Open vSwitch (OVS).

For system requirements for a bootstrap node, see Requirements for a bootstrap node.

If you use a firewall or proxy, make sure that the bootstrap, management, and regional clusters have access to the following IP ranges and domain names:

  • IP ranges:

  • Domain names:

    • mirror.mirantis.com and repos.mirantis.com for packages

    • binary.mirantis.com for binaries and Helm charts

    • mirantis.azurecr.io and *.blob.core.windows.net for Docker images

    • mcc-metrics-prod-ns.servicebus.windows.net:9093 for Telemetry (port 443 if proxy is enabled)

    • mirantis.my.salesforce.com and login.salesforce.com for Salesforce alerts

Note

  • Access to Salesforce is required from any Container Cloud cluster type.

  • If any additional Alertmanager notification receiver is enabled, for example, Slack, its endpoint must also be accessible from the cluster.

Note

The requirements in this section apply to the latest supported Container Cloud release.

Requirements for an OpenStack-based Container Cloud cluster

Resource

Management or regional cluster

Managed cluster

Comments

# of nodes

3 (HA) + 1 (Bastion)

5 (6 with StackLight HA)

  • A bootstrap cluster requires access to the OpenStack API.

  • Each management or regional cluster requires 3 nodes for the manager nodes HA. Adding more than 3 nodes to a management or regional cluster is not supported.

  • A managed cluster requires 3 manager nodes for HA and 2 worker nodes for the Container Cloud workloads. If the multiserver mode is enabled for StackLight, 3 worker nodes are required for workloads.

  • Each management or regional cluster requires 1 node for the Bastion instance that is created with a public IP address to allow SSH access to instances.

# of vCPUs per node

8

8

  • The Bastion node requires 1 vCPU.

  • Refer to the RAM recommendations described below to plan resources for different types of nodes.

RAM in GB per node

24

16

To prevent issues with low RAM, Mirantis recommends the following types of instances for a managed cluster with 50-200 nodes:

  • 16 vCPUs and 32 GB of RAM - manager node

  • 16 vCPUs and 128 GB of RAM - nodes where the StackLight server components run

The Bastion node requires 1 GB of RAM.

Storage in GB per node

120

120

  • For the Bastion node, the default amount of storage is enough

  • To boot machines from a block storage volume, verify that disks performance matches the etcd requirements as described in etcd documentation

  • To boot the Bastion node from a block storage volume, 80 GB is enough

Operating system

Ubuntu 20.04
CentOS 7.9 0
Ubuntu 20.04
CentOS 7.9 0

For management, regional, and managed clusters, a base Ubuntu 20.04 or CentOS 7.9 image must be present in Glance.

MCR

20.10.12

20.10.12

Mirantis Container Runtime (MCR) is deployed by Container Cloud as a Container Runtime Interface (CRI) instead of Docker Engine.

OpenStack version

Queens, Victoria

Queens, Victoria

OpenStack Victoria is supported top of MOSK clusters.

Obligatory OpenStack components

Octavia, Cinder, OVS/TF

Octavia, Cinder, OVS/TF

Tungsten Fabric is supported since Container Cloud 2.17.0 on OpenStack Victoria.

# of Cinder volumes

7 (total 110 GB)

5 (total 60 GB)

  • Each management or regional cluster requires 2 volumes for Container Cloud (total 50 GB) and 5 volumes for StackLight (total 60 GB)

  • A managed cluster requires 5 volumes for StackLight

# of load balancers

10 (management) + 7 (regional)

6

  • LBs for a management cluster:

    • 1 for MKE

    • 1 for Container Cloud UI

    • 1 for Keycloak service

    • 1 for IAM service

    • 6 for StackLight

  • LBs for a regional cluster:

    • 1 for MKE

    • 6 for StackLight

  • LBs for a managed cluster:

    • 1 for MKE

    • 5 for StackLight with enabled logging (or 4 without logging)

# of floating IPs

11 (management) + 8 (regional)

11

  • FIPs for a management cluster:

    • 1 for MKE

    • 1 for Container Cloud UI

    • 1 for Keycloak service

    • 1 for IAM service

    • 1 for the Bastion node (or 3 without Bastion: one FIP per manager node)

    • 6 for StackLight

  • FIPs for a regional cluster:

    • 1 for MKE

    • 1 for the Bastion node (or 3 without Bastion)

    • 6 for StackLight

  • FIPs for a managed cluster:

    • 1 for MKE

    • 3 for the manager nodes

    • 2 for the worker nodes

    • 5 for StackLight with enabled logging (4 without logging)

0(1,2)

A Container Cloud cluster based on both Ubuntu and CentOS operating systems is not supported.

Requirements for an AWS-based cluster

While planning the deployment of an AWS-based Mirantis Container Cloud cluster with Mirantis Kubernetes Engine, consider the requirements described below.

For system requirements for a bootstrap node, see Requirements for a bootstrap node.

Warning

Some of the AWS features required for Container Cloud may not be included into your AWS account quota. Therefore, carefully consider the AWS fees applied to your account that may increase for the Container Cloud infrastructure.

If you use a firewall or proxy, make sure that the bootstrap, management, and regional clusters have access to the following IP ranges and domain names:

  • IP ranges:

  • Domain names:

    • mirror.mirantis.com and repos.mirantis.com for packages

    • binary.mirantis.com for binaries and Helm charts

    • mirantis.azurecr.io and *.blob.core.windows.net for Docker images

    • mcc-metrics-prod-ns.servicebus.windows.net:9093 for Telemetry (port 443 if proxy is enabled)

    • mirantis.my.salesforce.com and login.salesforce.com for Salesforce alerts

Note

  • Access to Salesforce is required from any Container Cloud cluster type.

  • If any additional Alertmanager notification receiver is enabled, for example, Slack, its endpoint must also be accessible from the cluster.

Note

If you want to deploy a managed cluster that is based on Equinix Metal on top of an AWS-based management cluster, see Requirements for an Equinix Metal based cluster.

Note

The requirements in this section apply to the latest supported Container Cloud release.

Requirements for an AWS-based Container Cloud cluster

Resource

Management or regional cluster

Managed cluster

Comment

# of nodes

3 (HA)

5 (6 with StackLight HA)

  • A management cluster requires 3 nodes for the manager nodes HA. Adding more than 3 nodes to a management or regional cluster is not supported.

  • A managed cluster requires 3 manager nodes for HA and 2 worker nodes for the Container Cloud workloads. If the multiserver mode is enabled for StackLight, 3 worker nodes are required for workloads.

# of vCPUs per node

8

8

RAM in GB per node

24

16

Storage in GB per node

120

120

Operating system

Ubuntu 20.04

Ubuntu 20.04

For a management and managed cluster, a base Ubuntu 20.04 image is required.

MCR

20.10.12

20.10.12

Mirantis Container Runtime (MCR) is deployed by Container Cloud as a Container Runtime Interface (CRI) instead of Docker Engine.

Instance type

c5.4xlarge

c5.2xlarge

To prevent issues with low RAM, Mirantis recommends the following types of instances for a managed cluster with 50-200 nodes:

  • c5.4xlarge - manager node

  • r5.4xlarge - nodes where the StackLight server components run

Starting from Container Cloud 2.17.0, the /var/lib/docker Docker data is located on the same EBS volume drive as the operating system.

Warning

Do not stop the AWS instances dedicated to the Container Cloud clusters to prevent data failure and cluster disaster.

Bastion host instance type

t2.micro

t2.micro

The Bastion instance is created with a public Elastic IP address to allow SSH access to instances.

# of volumes

7 (total 110 GB)

5 (total 60 GB)

  • A management cluster requires 2 volumes for Container Cloud (total 50 GB) and 5 volumes for StackLight (total 60 GB)

  • A managed cluster requires 5 volumes for StackLight

# of Elastic load balancers to be used

10

6

  • Elastic LBs for a management cluster: 1 for Kubernetes, 4 for Container Cloud, 5 for StackLight

  • Elastic LBs for a managed cluster: 1 for Kubernetes and 5 for StackLight

# of Elastic IP addresses to be used

1

1

Requirements for an Azure-based cluster

While planning the deployment of an Azure-based Mirantis Container Cloud cluster with Mirantis Kubernetes Engine, consider the requirements described below.

For system requirements for a bootstrap node, see Requirements for a bootstrap node.

Warning

Some of the Azure features required for Container Cloud may not be included into your Azure account quota. Therefore, carefully consider the Azure fees applied to your account that may increase for the Container Cloud infrastructure.

If you use a firewall or proxy, make sure that the bootstrap, management, and regional clusters have access to the following IP ranges and domain names:

  • IP ranges:

  • Domain names:

    • mirror.mirantis.com and repos.mirantis.com for packages

    • binary.mirantis.com for binaries and Helm charts

    • mirantis.azurecr.io and *.blob.core.windows.net for Docker images

    • mcc-metrics-prod-ns.servicebus.windows.net:9093 for Telemetry (port 443 if proxy is enabled)

    • mirantis.my.salesforce.com and login.salesforce.com for Salesforce alerts

Note

  • Access to Salesforce is required from any Container Cloud cluster type.

  • If any additional Alertmanager notification receiver is enabled, for example, Slack, its endpoint must also be accessible from the cluster.

Note

The requirements in this section apply to the latest supported Container Cloud release.

Requirements for an Azure-based Container Cloud cluster

Resource

Management or regional cluster

Managed cluster

Comment

# of nodes

3 (HA)

5 (6 with StackLight HA)

  • A management cluster requires 3 nodes for the manager nodes HA. Adding more than 3 nodes to a management or regional cluster is not supported.

  • A managed cluster requires 3 manager nodes for HA and 2 worker nodes for the Container Cloud workloads. If the multiserver mode is enabled for StackLight, 3 worker nodes are required for workloads.

# of vCPUs per node

8

8

RAM in GB per node

24

16

Storage in GB per node

128

128

Operating system

Ubuntu 20.04

Ubuntu 20.04

For a management, regional and managed cluster, a base Ubuntu 20.04 image is required.

MCR

20.10.12

20.10.12

Mirantis Container Runtime (MCR) is deployed by Container Cloud as a Container Runtime Interface (CRI) instead of Docker Engine.

Virtual Machine size

Standard_F16s_v2

Standard_F8s_v2

To prevent issues with low RAM, Mirantis recommends selecting Azure virtual machine sizes that meet the following minimum requirements for managed clusters:

  • 16 GB RAM (24 GB RAM for a cluster with 50-200 nodes)

  • 8 CPUs

  • Ephemeral OS drive supported

  • OS drive size is more than 128 GB

# of Azure resource groups

1

1

# of Azure networks

1

1

# of Azure subnets

1

1

# of Azure security groups

1

1

# of Azure network interfaces

3

One network interface per each machine

# of Azure route tables

1

1

# of Azure load balancers to be used

2

2

1 load balancer for an API server and 1 for Kubernetes services

# of public IP addresses to be used

12/9

8

  • Management cluster: 10 public IPs for Kubernetes services and 2 public IPs as front-end IPs for load balancers

  • Regional cluster: 7 public IPs for Kubernetes services and 2 public IPs as front-end IPs for load balancers

  • Managed cluster: 6 public IPs for Kubernetes services and 2 public IPs as front-end IPs for load balancers

# of OS disks

3

1 OS disk per each machine

# of data disks

0

5 (total 60 GB)

A managed cluster requires 5 volumes for StackLight

Requirements for an Equinix Metal based cluster

Caution

Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, the public networking mode for the Equinix Metal based clusters is deprecated for the sake of the private networking mode. Deployments with public networks will become unsupported in one of the following Container Cloud releases.

While planning the deployment of a Mirantis Container Cloud cluster with MKE that is based on the Equinix Metal cloud provider, consider the requirements described below.

Mirantis supports deploying of clusters on Equinix Metal in two modes: with public or private networks. The deployment mode for management and managed clusters must be the same. For details on the private networks mode, see Equinix Metal with private networking.

For system requirements for a bootstrap node, see Requirements for a bootstrap node.

Note

For the Equinix Metal cloud provider with private networks, a bootstrap node must be attached to the VLAN that will be used to deploy a management cluster.

If you want to deploy an Equinix Metal based managed cluster with public networks on top of an AWS management cluster, also refer to requirements for an Requirements for an AWS-based cluster.

If you use a firewall or proxy, make sure that the bootstrap, management, and regional clusters have access to the following IP ranges and domain names:

  • IP ranges:

  • Domain names:

    • mirror.mirantis.com and repos.mirantis.com for packages

    • binary.mirantis.com for binaries and Helm charts

    • mirantis.azurecr.io and *.blob.core.windows.net for Docker images

    • mcc-metrics-prod-ns.servicebus.windows.net:9093 for Telemetry (port 443 if proxy is enabled)

    • mirantis.my.salesforce.com and login.salesforce.com for Salesforce alerts

Note

  • Access to Salesforce is required from any Container Cloud cluster type.

  • If any additional Alertmanager notification receiver is enabled, for example, Slack, its endpoint must also be accessible from the cluster.

Note

The requirements in this section apply to the latest supported Container Cloud release.

Requirements for an Equinix Metal based Container Cloud cluster

Resource

Management or regional cluster

Managed cluster

Comment

# of nodes

3 (HA)

5 (6 with StackLight HA)

  • A management cluster requires 3 nodes for the manager nodes HA. Adding more than 3 nodes to a management or regional cluster is not supported.

  • A managed cluster requires 3 manager nodes for HA and 2 worker nodes for the Container Cloud workloads. If the multiserver mode is enabled for StackLight, 3 worker nodes are required for workloads.

# of vCPUs per node

8

8

RAM in GB per node

24

16

Operating system

Ubuntu 20.04

Ubuntu 20.04

MCR

20.10.12

20.10.12

Mirantis Container Runtime (MCR) is deployed by Container Cloud as a Container Runtime Interface (CRI) instead of Docker Engine.

Server type

c3.small.x86

c3.small.x86

Most available Equinix Metal servers are configured with minimal requirements to deploy Container Cloud clusters. However, ensure that the selected Equinix Metal server type meets the following minimal requirements for a managed cluster:

  • 16 GB RAM

  • 8 CPUs

  • 2 storage devices with more than 120 GB each

Warning

If the Equinix Metal data center has not enough capacity, the server provisioning request will fail. Servers of particular types can be unavailable at a given time. Therefore, before you deploy a cluster, verify that the selected server type is available as described in Verify the capacity of the Equinix Metal facility.

For more details about the Equinix Metal capacity, see official Equinix Metal Documentation.

# of Elastic IP addresses to be used

12

6

  • Elastic IPs for a management cluster: 1 for Kubernetes, 5 for Container Cloud, 6 for StackLight

  • Elastic IPs for a managed cluster: 1 for Kubernetes and 5 for StackLight

  • Elastic IPs are not needed for clusters with private networks

# of IP addresses for a cluster with private networks

12

5

  • Managed cluster requires 5 IPs for StackLight

  • Management cluster requires IPs for the following services:

    • 6 for StackLight

    • 2 for IAM

    • 2 for Ironic

    • 1 for mcc-cache

    • 1 for UI

# VLANs for a cluster with private networks

1

1

Each cluster deployed on Equinix Metal with private networks requires 1 separate VLAN.

Ceph nodes

-

See comments

Caution

Ceph changes in Container Cloud 2.20.0:

  • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, Ceph cluster does not deploy on management and regional clusters of the Equinix Metal provider with private networking.

  • Ceph cluster is automatically removed from existing management and regional clusters during the Container Cloud update to 2.20.0.

  • Managed clusters continue using Ceph as a distributed storage system.

Recommended minimal number of Ceph node roles:

Storage

Manager and Monitor

1-2

1

3-500

3 (for HA)

> 500

5

If you select Manual Ceph Configuration during the cluster creation, you can manually configure Ceph roles for each machine in the cluster following the recommended minimal number of Ceph node roles. Otherwise, Equinix Metal cloud provider will automatically configure Ceph roles: all control plane machines will be configured with Storage and Manager and Monitor roles. All worker machines will be configured with Storage role.

Requirements for a VMware vSphere-based cluster

Note

Container Cloud is developed and tested on VMware vSphere 7.0 and 6.7.

For system requirements for a bootstrap node, see Requirements for a bootstrap node.

If you use a firewall or proxy, make sure that the bootstrap, management, and regional clusters have access to the following IP ranges and domain names:

  • IP ranges:

  • Domain names:

    • mirror.mirantis.com and repos.mirantis.com for packages

    • binary.mirantis.com for binaries and Helm charts

    • mirantis.azurecr.io and *.blob.core.windows.net for Docker images

    • mcc-metrics-prod-ns.servicebus.windows.net:9093 for Telemetry (port 443 if proxy is enabled)

    • mirantis.my.salesforce.com and login.salesforce.com for Salesforce alerts

Note

  • Access to Salesforce is required from any Container Cloud cluster type.

  • If any additional Alertmanager notification receiver is enabled, for example, Slack, its endpoint must also be accessible from the cluster.

Note

The requirements in this section apply to the latest supported Container Cloud release.

Requirements for a vSphere-based Container Cloud cluster

Resource

Management cluster

Managed cluster

Comments

# of nodes

3 (HA)

5 (6 with StackLight HA)

  • A bootstrap cluster requires access to the vSphere API.

  • A management cluster requires 3 nodes for the manager nodes HA. Adding more than 3 nodes to a management or regional cluster is not supported.

  • A managed cluster requires 3 manager nodes for HA and 2 worker nodes for the Container Cloud workloads. If the multiserver mode is enabled for StackLight, 3 worker nodes are required for workloads.

# of vCPUs per node

8

8

Refer to the RAM recommendations described below to plan resources for different types of nodes.

RAM in GB per node

24

16

To prevent issues with low RAM, Mirantis recommends the following VM templates for a managed cluster with 50-200 nodes:

  • 16 vCPUs and 32 GB of RAM - manager node

  • 16 vCPUs and 128 GB of RAM - nodes where the StackLight server components run

Storage in GB per node

120

120

The listed amount of disk space must be available as a shared datastore of any type, for example, NFS or vSAN, mounted on all hosts of the vCenter cluster.

Operating system

RHEL 7.9 or 7.8 1
RHEL 8.4 2
CentOS 7.9 2
Ubuntu 20.04 Since 2.18.0
RHEL 7.9 or 7.8 1
RHEL 8.4 2
CentOS 7.9 2
Ubuntu 20.04 Since 2.18.0

For a management and managed cluster, a base OS VM template must be present in the VMware VM templates folder available to Container Cloud. For details about the template, see Prepare the OVF template.

RHEL license
(for RHEL deployments only)

RHEL licenses for Virtual Datacenters

RHEL licenses for Virtual Datacenters

This license type allows running unlimited guests inside one hypervisor. The amount of licenses is equal to the amount of hypervisors in vCenter Server, which will be used to host RHEL-based machines. Container Cloud will schedule machines according to scheduling rules applied to vCenter Server. Therefore, make sure that your RedHat Customer portal account has enough licenses for allowed hypervisors.

MCR

20.10.12

20.10.12

Mirantis Container Runtime (MCR) is deployed by Container Cloud as a Container Runtime Interface (CRI) instead of Docker Engine.

VMware vSphere version

7.0, 6.7

7.0, 6.7

cloud-init version

19.4 for RHEL/CentOS 7.9
20.3 for RHEL 8.4 TechPreview
19.4 for RHEL/CentOS 7.9
20.3 for RHEL 8.4 TechPreview

The minimal cloud-init package version built for the Prepare the OVF template.

VMware Tools version

11.0.5

11.0.5

The minimal open-vm-tools package version built for the Prepare the OVF template.

Obligatory vSphere capabilities

DRS,
Shared datastore
DRS,
Shared datastore

A shared datastore must be mounted on all hosts of the vCenter cluster. Combined with Distributed Resources Scheduler (DRS), it ensures that the VMs are dynamically scheduled to the cluster hosts.

IP subnet size

/24

/24

Consider the supported VMware vSphere network objects and IPAM recommendations.

Minimal IP addresses distribution:

  • Management cluster:

    • 1 for the load balancer of Kubernetes API

    • 3 for manager nodes (one per node)

    • 6 for the Container Cloud services

    • 6 for StackLight

  • Managed cluster:

    • 1 for the load balancer of Kubernetes API

    • 3 for manager nodes

    • 2 for worker nodes

    • 6 for StackLight

1(1,2)

RHEL 7.8 deployment is possible with allowed access to the rhel-7-server-rpms repository provided by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 7 x86_64. Verify that your RHEL license or activation key meets this requirement.

2(1,2,3,4)

CentOS 7.9 and RHEL 8.4 deployments are available as Technology Preview. Use this configuration for testing and evaluation purposes only. A Container Cloud cluster based on both RHEL and CentOS operating systems or on mixed RHEL versions is not supported.

StackLight requirements for an MKE attached cluster

Note

Attachment of MKE clusters is tested on the following operating systems:

  • Ubuntu 20.04

  • RHEL 7.9

  • CentOS 8 and 7.9

While planning the attachment of an existing Mirantis Kubernetes Engine (MKE) cluster that is not deployed by Container Cloud, consider the following cluster size requirements for StackLight. Depending on the following specific StackLight HA and logging settings, use the example size guidelines below:

  • The non-HA mode - StackLight services are installed on a minimum of one node with the StackLight label (StackLight nodes) with no redundancy using Persistent Volumes (PVs) from the default storage class to store data. Metric collection agents are installed on each node (Other nodes).

  • The HA mode - StackLight services are installed on a minimum of three nodes with the StackLight label (StackLight nodes) with redundancy using PVs provided by Local Volume Provisioner to store data. Metric collection agents are installed on each node (Other nodes).

  • Logging enabled - the Enable logging option is turned on, which enables the OpenSearch cluster to store infrastructure logs.

  • Logging disabled - the Enable logging option is turned off. In this case, StackLight will not install OpenSearch and will not collect infrastructure logs.

LoadBalancer (LB) Services support is required to provide external access to StackLight web UIs.

StackLight requirements for an attached MKE cluster, with logging enabled:

StackLight nodes 1

Other nodes

Storage (PVs)

LBs

Non-HA (1-node example)

  • RAM requests: 11 GB

  • RAM limits: 33 GB

  • CPU requests: 4.5 cores

  • CPU limits: 12 cores

  • RAM requests: 0.25 GB

  • RAM limits: 1 GB

  • CPU requests: 0.5 cores

  • CPU limits: 1 core

  • 1 PV for Prometheus (size is configurable; 1x total)

  • 2 PVs for Alertmanager (2 Gi/volume; 4 Gi total)

  • 1 PV for Patroni (10 G; 10 G total)

  • 1 PV for OpenSearch (size is configurable; 1x total)

5

HA (3-nodes example)

  • RAM requests: 10 GB

  • RAM limits: 25 GB

  • CPU requests: 2.8 cores

  • CPU limits: 7.5 cores

  • RAM requests: 0.25 GB

  • RAM limits: 1 GB

  • CPU requests: 0.5 cores

  • CPU limits: 1 core

  • 2 PVs (1 per StackLight node) for Prometheus (size is configurable; 2x total)

  • 2 PVs (1 per StackLight node) for Alertmanager (2 Gi/volume; 4 Gi total)

  • 3 PVs (1 per StackLight node) for Patroni (10 G/volume; 30 G total)

  • 3 PVs (1 per StackLight node) for OpenSearch (size is configurable; 3x total)

5

StackLight requirements for an attached MKE cluster, with logging disabled

StackLight nodes 1

Other nodes

Storage (PVs)

LBs

Non-HA (1-node example)

  • RAM requests: 4 GB

  • RAM limits: 23 GB

  • CPU requests: 3 cores

  • CPU limits: 9 cores

  • RAM requests: 0.05 GB

  • RAM limits: 0.1 GB

  • CPU requests: 0.01 cores

  • CPU limits: 0 cores

  • 1 PV for Prometheus (size is configurable; 1x total)

  • 2 PVs for Alertmanager (2 Gi/volume; 4Gi total)

  • 1 PV for Patroni (10 G; 10 G total)

4

HA (3-nodes example)

  • RAM requests: 3 GB

  • RAM limits: 15 GB

  • CPU requests: 1.6 cores

  • CPU limits: 4.2 cores

  • RAM requests: 0.05 GB

  • RAM limits: 0.1 GB

  • CPU requests: 0.01 cores

  • CPU limits: 0 core

  • 2 PVs (1 per StackLight node) for Prometheus (size is configurable; 2x total)

  • 2 PVs (1 per StackLight node) for Alertmanager (2 Gi/volume; 4 Gi total)

  • 3 PVs (1 per StackLight node) for Patroni (10 G/volume; 30 G total)

4

1(1,2)

In the non-HA mode, StackLight components are bound to the nodes labeled with the StackLight label. If there are no nodes labeled, StackLight components will be scheduled to all schedulable worker nodes until the StackLight label(s) are added. The requirements presented in the table for the non-HA mode are summarized requirements for all StackLight nodes.

Proxy and cache support

Proxy support

If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server for security and audit purposes, you can bootstrap management and regional clusters using proxy. The proxy server settings consist of three standard environment variables that are set prior to the bootstrap process:

  • HTTP_PROXY

  • HTTPS_PROXY

  • NO_PROXY

These settings are not propagated to managed clusters. However, you can enable a separate proxy access on a managed cluster using the Container Cloud web UI. This proxy is intended for the end user needs and is not used for a managed cluster deployment or for access to the Mirantis resources.

Caution

Since Container Cloud uses the OpenID Connect (OIDC) protocol for IAM authentication, management clusters require a direct non-proxy access from regional and managed clusters.

StackLight components, which require external access, automatically use the same proxy that is configured for Container Cloud clusters.

On the managed clusters with limited Internet access, a proxy is required for StackLight components that use HTTP and HTTPS and are disabled by default but need external access if enabled, for example, for the Salesforce integration and Alertmanager notifications external rules. For more details about proxy implementation in StackLight, see StackLight proxy.

For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Hardware and system requirements.

After enabling proxy support on regional and managed clusters, proxy is used for:

  • Docker and CDN traffic on regional clusters

  • Docker traffic on managed clusters

  • StackLight

  • OpenStack on MOSK-based clusters

Artifacts caching

The Container Cloud managed clusters are deployed without direct Internet access in order to consume less Internet traffic in your cloud. The Mirantis artifacts used during managed clusters deployment are downloaded through a cache running on a regional cluster. The feature is enabled by default on new managed clusters and will be automatically enabled on existing clusters during upgrade to the latest version.

Caution

IAM operations require a direct non-proxy access of a managed cluster to a management cluster.

Mirantis Kubernetes Engine API limitations

To ensure the Mirantis Container Cloud stability in managing the Container Cloud-based Mirantis Kubernetes Engine (MKE) clusters, the following MKE API functionality is not available for the Container Cloud-based MKE clusters as compared to the attached MKE clusters that are not deployed by Container Cloud. Use the Container Cloud web UI or CLI for this functionality instead.

Public APIs limitations in a Container Cloud-based MKE cluster

API endpoint

Limitation

GET /swarm

Swarm Join Tokens are filtered out for all users, including admins.

PUT /api/ucp/config-toml

All requests are forbidden.

POST /nodes/{id}/update

Requests for the following changes are forbidden:

  • Change Role

  • Add or remove the com.docker.ucp.orchestrator.swarm and com.docker.ucp.orchestrator.kubernetes labels.

DELETE /nodes/{id}

All requests are forbidden.

Deployment Guide

Deploy a baremetal-based management cluster

This section describes how to bootstrap a baremetal-based Mirantis Container Cloud management cluster.

Ceph changes in Container Cloud 2.20

  • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, the Ceph cluster does not deploy on management and regional clusters to reduce resource consumption.

  • Ceph cluster is automatically removed from existing management and regional clusters during the Container Cloud update to 2.20.0.

  • Managed clusters continue using Ceph as a distributed storage system.

Workflow overview

The bare metal management system enables the Infrastructure Operator to deploy Mirantis Container Cloud on a set of bare metal servers. It also enables Container Cloud to deploy managed clusters on bare metal servers without a pre-provisioned operating system.

The Infrastructure Operator performs the following steps to install Container Cloud in a bare metal environment:

  1. Install and connect hardware servers as described in Requirements for a baremetal-based cluster.

    Caution

    The baremetal-based Container Cloud does not manage the underlay networking fabric but requires specific network configuration to operate.

  2. Install Ubuntu 20.04 on one of the bare metal machines to create a seed node and copy the bootstrap tarball to this node.

  3. Obtain the Mirantis license file that will be required during the bootstrap.

  4. Create the deployment configuration files that include the bare metal hosts metadata.

  5. Validate the deployment templates using fast preflight.

  6. Run the bootstrap script for the fully automated installation of the management cluster onto the selected bare metal hosts.

Using the bootstrap script, the Container Cloud bare metal management system prepares the seed node for the management cluster and starts the deployment of Container Cloud itself. The bootstrap script performs all necessary operations to perform the automated management cluster setup. The deployment diagram below illustrates the bootstrap workflow of a baremetal-based management cluster.

_images/bm-bootstrap-workflow.png
Bootstrap a management cluster

This section describes how to prepare and bootstrap a baremetal-based management cluster. The procedure includes:

  • A runbook that describes how to create a seed node that is a temporary server used to run the management cluster bootstrap scripts.

  • A step-by-step instruction how to prepare metadata for the bootstrap scripts and how to run them.

Prepare the seed node

Before installing Mirantis Container Cloud on a bare metal environment, complete the following preparation steps:

  1. Verify that the hardware allocated for the installation meets the minimal requirements described in Requirements for a baremetal-based cluster.

  2. Install basic Ubuntu 20.04 server using standard installation images of the operating system on the bare metal seed node.

  3. Log in to the seed node that is running Ubuntu 20.04.

  4. Prepare the system and network configuration:

    1. Create a virtual bridge to connect to your PXE network on the seed node. Use the following netplan-based configuration file as an example:

      # cat /etc/netplan/config.yaml
      network:
        version: 2
        renderer: networkd
        ethernets:
          ens3:
              dhcp4: false
              dhcp6: false
        bridges:
            br0:
                addresses:
                # Please, adjust for your environment
                - 10.0.0.15/24
                dhcp4: false
                dhcp6: false
                # Please, adjust for your environment
                gateway4: 10.0.0.1
                interfaces:
                # Interface name may be different in your environment
                - ens3
                nameservers:
                    addresses:
                    # Please, adjust for your environment
                    - 8.8.8.8
                parameters:
                    forward-delay: 4
                    stp: false
      
    2. Apply the new network configuration using netplan:

      sudo netplan apply
      
    3. Verify the new network configuration:

      sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y bridge-utils
      sudo brctl show
      

      Example of system response:

      bridge name     bridge id               STP enabled     interfaces
      br0             8000.fa163e72f146       no              ens3
      

      Verify that the interface connected to the PXE network belongs to the previously configured bridge.

    4. Install the current Docker version available for Ubuntu 20.04:

      sudo apt update
      sudo apt install docker.io
      
    5. Verify that your logged USER has access to the Docker daemon:

      sudo usermod -aG docker $USER
      
    6. Log out and log in again to the seed node to apply the changes.

    7. Verify that Docker is configured correctly and has access to Container Cloud CDN. For example:

      docker run --rm alpine sh -c "apk add --no-cache curl; \
      curl https://binary.mirantis.com"
      

      The system output must contain a json file with no error messages. In case of errors, follow the steps provided in Troubleshooting.

      Note

      If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server for security and audit purposes, configure Docker proxy settings as described in the official Docker documentation.

Proceed with Verify the seed node.

Verify the seed node

Before you proceed to bootstrapping the management cluster on bare metal, perform the following steps:

  1. Verify that the seed node has direct access to the Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) of each baremetal host. All target hardware nodes must be in the power off state.

    For example, using the IPMI tool:

    apt install ipmitool
    ipmitool -I lanplus -H 'IPMI IP' -U 'IPMI Login' -P 'IPMI password' \
    chassis power status
    

    Example of system response:

    Chassis Power is off
    
  2. Verify that you configured each bare metal host as follows:

    • Enable the boot NIC support for UEFI load. Usually, at least the built-in network interfaces support it.

    • Enable the UEFI-LAN-OPROM support in BIOS -> Advanced -> PCIPCIe.

    • Enable the IPv4-PXE stack.

    • Set the following boot order:

      1. UEFI-DISK

      2. UEFI-PXE

    • If your PXE network is not configured to use the first network interface, fix the UEFI-PXE boot order to speed up node discovering by selecting only one required network interface.

    • Power off all bare metal hosts.

    Warning

    Only one Ethernet port on a host must be connected to the PXE network at any given time. The physical address (MAC) of this interface must be noted and used to configure the BareMetalHost object describing the host.

Proceed with Prepare metadata and deploy the management cluster.

Prepare metadata and deploy the management cluster

Using the example procedure below, replace the addresses and credentials in the configuration YAML files with the data from your environment. Keep everything else as is, including the file names and YAML structure.

The overall network mapping scheme with all L2/L3 parameters, for example, for a single 10.0.0.0/24 network, is described in the following table. The configuration of each parameter indicated in this table is described in the steps below.

Network mapping overview

Deployment file name

Parameters and values

cluster.yaml

  • SET_LB_HOST=10.0.0.90

  • SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL=10.0.0.61-10.0.0.80

ipam-objects.yaml

  • SET_IPAM_CIDR=10.0.0.0/24

  • SET_PXE_NW_GW=10.0.0.1

  • SET_PXE_NW_DNS=8.8.8.8

  • SET_IPAM_POOL_RANGE=10.0.0.100-10.0.0.252

  • SET_LB_HOST=10.0.0.90

  • SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL=10.0.0.61-10.0.0.80

bootstrap.sh

  • KAAS_BM_PXE_IP=10.0.0.20

  • KAAS_BM_PXE_MASK=24

  • KAAS_BM_PXE_BRIDGE=br0

  • KAAS_BM_BM_DHCP_RANGE=10.0.0.30,10.0.0.49,255.255.255.0

  • BOOTSTRAP_METALLB_ADDRESS_POOL=10.0.0.61-10.0.0.80


  1. Log in to the seed node that you configured as described in Prepare the seed node.

  2. Change to your preferred work directory, for example, your home directory:

    cd $HOME
    
  3. Prepare the bootstrap script:

    1. Download and run the Container Cloud bootstrap script:

      apt install wget
      wget https://binary.mirantis.com/releases/get_container_cloud.sh
      chmod 0755 get_container_cloud.sh
      ./get_container_cloud.sh
      
    2. Change the directory to the kaas-bootstrap folder created by the script.

  4. Obtain your license file that will be required during the bootstrap:

    1. Create a user account at www.mirantis.com.

    2. Log in to your account and download the mirantis.lic license file.

    3. Save the license file as mirantis.lic under the kaas-bootstrap directory on the bootstrap node.

    4. Verify that mirantis.lic contains the exact Container Cloud license previously downloaded from www.mirantis.com by decoding the license JWT token, for example, using jwt.io.

      Example of a valid decoded Container Cloud license data with the mandatory license field:

      {
          "exp": 1652304773,
          "iat": 1636669973,
          "sub": "demo",
          "license": {
              "dev": false,
              "limits": {
                  "clusters": 10,
                  "workers_per_cluster": 10
              },
              "openstack": null
          }
      }
      

      Warning

      The MKE license does not apply to mirantis.lic. For details about MKE license, see MKE documentation.

  5. Prepare the deployment templates:

    Ceph changes in Container Cloud 2.20

    • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, the Ceph cluster does not deploy on management and regional clusters to reduce resource consumption.

    • Ceph cluster is automatically removed from existing management and regional clusters during the Container Cloud update to 2.20.0.

    • Managed clusters continue using Ceph as a distributed storage system.

    1. Create a copy of the current templates directory for future reference.

      mkdir templates.backup
      cp -r templates/*  templates.backup/
      
    2. Update the cluster definition template in templates/bm/cluster.yaml.template according to the environment configuration. Use the table below. Manually set all parameters that start with SET_. For example, SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL.

      Cluster template mandatory parameters

      Parameter

      Description

      Example value

      SET_LB_HOST

      The IP address of the externally accessible API endpoint of the cluster. This address must NOT be within the SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL range but must be within the PXE/Management network. External load balancers are not supported.

      10.0.0.90

      SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL

      The IP range to be used as external load balancers for the Kubernetes services with the LoadBalancer type. This range must be within the PXE/Management network. The minimum required range is 19 IP addresses.

      10.0.0.61-10.0.0.80

    3. Optional. If you plan to use multiple L2 segments for provisioning of managed cluster nodes, consider the requirements specified in Configure multiple DHCP ranges using Subnet resources.

    4. Optional. Override the default dnsmasq settings.

      The dnsmasq configuration options dhcp-option=3 and dhcp-option=6 are absent in the default configuration. So, by default, dnsmasq will send the DNS server and default route to DHCP clients as defined in the dnsmasq official documentation:

      • The netmask and broadcast address are the same as on the host running dnsmasq.

      • The DNS server and default route are set to the address of the host running dnsmasq.

      • If the domain name option is set, this name is sent to DHCP clients.

      If such behavior is not desirable during the cluster deployment, add the corresponding DHCP options, such as a specific gateway address and DNS addresses, using the dnsmasq.dnsmasq_extra_opts parameter for the baremetal-operator release in templates/bm/cluster.yaml.template:

       providerSpec:
         value:
           kind: BaremetalClusterProviderSpec
           ...
           kaas:
             regional:
             - provider: baremetal
               helmReleases:
               - name: baremetal-operator
                 values:
                   dnsmasq:
                     dnsmasq_extra_opts:
                     - dhcp-option=3
                     - dhcp-option=6
      
    5. Optional if servers from the Ubuntu NTP pool (*.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org) are accessible from the node where your cluster is being provisioned. Otherwise, this step is mandatory.

      Configure the regional NTP server parameters to be applied to all machines of regional and managed clusters in the specified region.

      In templates/bm/cluster.yaml.template, add the ntp:servers section with the list of required servers names:

      spec:
        ...
        providerSpec:
          value:
            kaas:
            ...
              regional:
                - helmReleases:
                  - name: baremetal-provider
                    values:
                      config:
                        lcm:
                          ...
                          ntp:
                            servers:
                            - 0.pool.ntp.org
                            ...
                  provider: baremetal
                  ...
      
    6. Inspect the default bare metal host profile definition in templates/bm/baremetalhostprofiles.yaml.template. If your hardware configuration differs from the reference, adjust the default profile to match. For details, see Customize the default bare metal host profile.

      Warning

      All data will be wiped during cluster deployment on devices defined directly or indirectly in the fileSystems list of BareMetalHostProfile. For example:

      • A raw device partition with a file system on it

      • A device partition in a volume group with a logical volume that has a file system on it

      • An mdadm RAID device with a file system on it

      • An LVM RAID device with a file system on it

      The wipe field is always considered true for these devices. The false value is ignored.

      Therefore, to prevent data loss, move the necessary data from these file systems to another server beforehand, if required.

    7. Update the bare metal hosts definition template in templates/bm/baremetalhosts.yaml.template according to the environment configuration. Use the table below. Manually set all parameters that start with SET_.

      Bare metal hosts template mandatory parameters

      Parameter

      Description

      Example value

      SET_MACHINE_0_IPMI_USERNAME

      The IPMI user name in the base64 encoding to access the BMC. 0

      dXNlcg== (base64 encoded user)

      SET_MACHINE_0_IPMI_PASSWORD

      The IPMI password in the base64 encoding to access the BMC. 0

      cGFzc3dvcmQ= (base64 encoded password)

      SET_MACHINE_0_MAC

      The MAC address of the first master node in the PXE network.

      ac:1f:6b:02:84:71

      SET_MACHINE_0_BMC_ADDRESS

      The IP address of the BMC endpoint for the first master node in the cluster. Must be an address from the OOB network that is accessible through the PXE network default gateway.

      192.168.100.11

      SET_MACHINE_1_IPMI_USERNAME

      The IPMI user name in the base64 encoding to access the BMC. 0

      dXNlcg== (base64 encoded user)

      SET_MACHINE_1_IPMI_PASSWORD

      The IPMI password in the base64 encoding to access the BMC. 0

      cGFzc3dvcmQ= (base64 encoded password)

      SET_MACHINE_1_MAC

      The MAC address of the second master node in the PXE network.

      ac:1f:6b:02:84:72

      SET_MACHINE_1_BMC_ADDRESS

      The IP address of the BMC endpoint for the second master node in the cluster. Must be an address from the OOB network that is accessible through the PXE network default gateway.

      192.168.100.12

      SET_MACHINE_2_IPMI_USERNAME

      The IPMI user name in the base64 encoding to access the BMC. 0

      dXNlcg== (base64 encoded user)

      SET_MACHINE_2_IPMI_PASSWORD

      The IPMI password in the base64 encoding to access the BMC. 0

      cGFzc3dvcmQ= (base64 encoded password)

      SET_MACHINE_2_MAC

      The MAC address of the third master node in the PXE network.

      ac:1f:6b:02:84:73

      SET_MACHINE_2_BMC_ADDRESS

      The IP address of the BMC endpoint for the third master node in the cluster. Must be an address from the OOB network that is accessible through the PXE network default gateway.

      192.168.100.13

      0(1,2,3,4,5,6)

      You can obtain the base64-encoded user name and password using the following command in your Linux console:

      $ echo -n <username|password> | base64
      
    8. Update the Subnet objects definition template in templates/bm/ipam-objects.yaml.template according to the environment configuration. Use the table below. Manually set all parameters that start with SET_. For example, SET_IPAM_POOL_RANGE.

      IP address pools template mandatory parameters

      Parameter

      Description

      Example value

      SET_IPAM_CIDR

      The address of PXE network in CIDR notation. Must be minimum in the /24 network.

      10.0.0.0/24

      SET_PXE_NW_GW

      The default gateway in the PXE network. Since this is the only network that cluster will use by default, this gateway must provide access to:

      • The Internet to download the Mirantis artifacts

      • The OOB network of the Container Cloud cluster

      10.0.0.1

      SET_PXE_NW_DNS

      An external (non-Kubernetes) DNS server accessible from the PXE network.

      8.8.8.8

      SET_IPAM_POOL_RANGE

      This IP address range includes addresses that will be allocated in the PXE/Management network to bare metal hosts of the cluster.

      10.0.0.100-10.0.0.252

      SET_LB_HOST 1

      The IP address of the externally accessible API endpoint of the cluster. This address must NOT be within the SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL range but must be within the PXE/Management network. External load balancers are not supported.

      10.0.0.90

      SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL 1

      The IP address range to be used as external load balancers for the Kubernetes services with the LoadBalancer type. This range must be within the PXE/Management network. The minimum required range is 19 IP addresses.

      10.0.0.61-10.0.0.80

      1(1,2)

      Use the same value that you used for this parameter in the cluster.yaml.template file (see above).

    9. Optional. To configure the separated PXE and management networks instead of one PXE/management network, proceed to Separate PXE and management networks.

    10. Optional. To connect the cluster hosts to the PXE/Management network using bond interfaces, proceed to Configure NIC bonding.

    11. If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server, in bootstrap.env, add the following environment variables to bootstrap the cluster using proxy:

      • HTTP_PROXY

      • HTTPS_PROXY

      • NO_PROXY

      • PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH

      Example snippet:

      export HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.example.com:3128
      export HTTPS_PROXY=http://user:pass@proxy.example.com:3128
      export NO_PROXY=172.18.10.0,registry.internal.lan
      export PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH="/home/ubuntu/.mitmproxy/mitmproxy-ca-cert.cer"
      

      The following formats of variables are accepted:

      Proxy configuration data

      Variable

      Format

      HTTP_PROXY
      HTTPS_PROXY
      • http://proxy.example.com:port - for anonymous access

      • http://user:password@proxy.example.com:port - for restricted access

      NO_PROXY

      Comma-separated list of IP addresses or domain names

      PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH Available since 2.20.0 as GA

      Optional. Path to the proxy CA certificate for man-in-the-middle (MITM) proxies. Must be placed on the bootstrap node to be trusted. For details, see Install a CA certificate for a MITM proxy on a bootstrap node.

      Warning

      If you require Internet access to go through a MITM proxy, ensure that the proxy has streaming enabled as described in Enable streaming for MITM.

      Note

      • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, this parameter is generally available for the OpenStack, bare metal, Equinix Metal with private networking, AWS, and vSphere providers

      • For MOSK-based deployments, the feature support is available since MOSK 22.4

      • Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, this parameter is available as TechPreview for the OpenStack and bare metal providers only

      • For Azure and Equinix Metal with public networking, the feature is not supported

      For implementation details, see Proxy and cache support.

      For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Requirements for a baremetal-based cluster.

    12. Skip this step since Container Cloud 2.20.0.

      Ceph changes in Container Cloud 2.20

      • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, the Ceph cluster does not deploy on management and regional clusters to reduce resource consumption.

      • Ceph cluster is automatically removed from existing management and regional clusters during the Container Cloud update to 2.20.0.

      • Managed clusters continue using Ceph as a distributed storage system.

      Configure the Ceph cluster:

      1. Optional. Technology Preview. Configure Ceph Controller to manage Ceph nodes resources. In templates/bm/cluster.yaml.template, in the ceph-controller section of spec.providerSpec.value.helmReleases, specify the hyperconverge parameter with required resource requests, limits, or tolerations:

        spec:
           providerSpec:
             value:
               helmReleases:
               - name: ceph-controller
                 values:
                   hyperconverge:
                     tolerations: <ceph tolerations map>
                     resources: <ceph resource management map>
        

        For the parameters description, see Enable Ceph tolerations and resources management.

      2. In templates/bm/kaascephcluster.yaml.template:

        • Configure dedicated networks for Ceph components. Select from the following options:

          • Specify dedicated networks directly using the clusterNet and publicNet parameters.

            Warning

            Mirantis does not recommend specifying 0.0.0.0/0 in clusterNet and publicNet.

            Note

            The bare metal provider automatically translates the 0.0.0.0/0 network range to the default LCM IPAM subnet if it exists.

          • Add the corresponding labels for the bare metal IPAM subnets:

            • ipam/SVC-ceph-cluster to the IPAM Subnet that will be used as a Ceph cluster network (reflects clusterNet).

            • ipam/SVC-ceph-public to the IPAM Subnet that will be used as a Ceph public network (reflects publicNet).

            Example of a bare metal IPAM subnet used as a Ceph public network:

            apiVersion: ipam.mirantis.com/v1alpha1
            kind: Subnet
            metadata:
              labels:
                ...
                ipam/SVC-ceph-public: "1"
            

            Example of a bare metal IPAM subnet used as a Ceph cluster network:

            apiVersion: ipam.mirantis.com/v1alpha1
            kind: Subnet
            metadata:
              labels:
                ...
                ipam/SVC-ceph-cluster: "1"
            
        • Set up the disk configuration according to your hardware node specification. Verify that the storageDevices section has a valid list of HDD, SSD, or NVME device names and each device is empty, that is, no file system is present on it.

        • If required, configure other parameters as described in Ceph advanced configuration.

        Configuration example:

        ...
        # This part of KaaSCephCluster should contain valid networks definition
        network:
          clusterNet: 10.10.10.0/24
          publicNet: 10.10.11.0/24
        ...
        nodes:
          master-0:
          ...
          <node_name>:
            ...
            # This part of KaaSCephCluster should contain valid device names
            storageDevices:
            - name: sdb
              config:
                deviceClass: hdd
            # Each storageDevices dicts can have several devices
            - name: sdc
              config:
                deviceClass: hdd
            # All devices for Ceph also should be described to ``wipe`` in
            # ``baremetalhosts.yaml.template``
            - name: sdd
              config:
               deviceClass: hdd
            # Do not to include first devices here (like vda or sda)
            # because they will be allocated for operating system
        
      3. In machines.yaml.template, verify that the metadata:name structure matches the machine names in the spec:nodes structure of kaascephcluster.yaml.template.

    13. Verify that the kaas-bootstrap directory contains the following files:

      # tree  ~/kaas-bootstrap
        ~/kaas-bootstrap/
        ....
        ├── bootstrap.sh
        ├── kaas
        ├── mirantis.lic
        ├── releases
        ...
        ├── templates
        ....
        │             ├── bm
        │             │             ├── baremetalhostprofiles.yaml.template
        │             │             ├── baremetalhosts.yaml.template
        │             │             ├── cluster.yaml.template
        │             │             ├── ipam-objects.yaml.template
        │             │             └── machines.yaml.template
        ....
        ├── templates.backup
            ....
      

      Note

      Before Container Cloud 2.20.0, kaas-bootstrap/templates/bm also must contain kaascephcluster.yaml.template.

    14. Export all required parameters using the table below.

      export KAAS_BM_ENABLED="true"
      #
      export KAAS_BM_PXE_IP="10.0.0.20"
      export KAAS_BM_PXE_MASK="24"
      export KAAS_BM_PXE_BRIDGE="br0"
      #
      export KAAS_BM_BM_DHCP_RANGE="10.0.0.30,10.0.0.49,255.255.255.0"
      export BOOTSTRAP_METALLB_ADDRESS_POOL="10.0.0.61-10.0.0.80"
      #
      unset KAAS_BM_FULL_PREFLIGHT
      
      Bare metal prerequisites data

      Parameter

      Description

      Example value

      KAAS_BM_PXE_IP

      The provisioning IP address. This address will be assigned to the interface of the seed node defined by the KAAS_BM_PXE_BRIDGE parameter (see below). The PXE service of the bootstrap cluster will use this address to network boot the bare metal hosts for the cluster.

      10.0.0.20

      KAAS_BM_PXE_MASK

      The CIDR prefix for the PXE network. It will be used with KAAS_BM_PXE_IP address when assigning it to network interface.

      24

      KAAS_BM_PXE_BRIDGE

      The PXE network bridge name. The name must match the name of the bridge created on the seed node during the Prepare the seed node stage.

      br0

      KAAS_BM_BM_DHCP_RANGE

      The start_ip and end_ip addresses must be within the PXE network. This range will be used by dnsmasq to provide IP addresses for nodes during provisioning.

      10.0.0.30,10.0.0.49,255.255.255.0

      BOOTSTRAP_METALLB_ADDRESS_POOL

      The pool of IP addresses that will be used by services in the bootstrap cluster. Can be the same as the SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL range for the cluster, or a different range.

      10.0.0.61-10.0.0.80

    15. Run the verification preflight script to validate the deployment templates configuration:

      ./bootstrap.sh preflight
      

      The command outputs a human-readable report with the verification details. The report includes the list of verified bare metal nodes and their Chassis Power status. This status is based on the deployment templates configuration used during the verification.

      Caution

      If the report contains information about missing dependencies or incorrect configuration, fix the issues before proceeding to the next step.

  6. Optional. Configure external identity provider for IAM.

  7. Run the bootstrap script:

    ./bootstrap.sh all
    
    • In case of deployment issues, refer to Troubleshooting and inspect logs.

    • If the script fails for an unknown reason:

      1. Run the cleanup script:

        ./bootstrap.sh cleanup
        
      2. Rerun the bootstrap script.

    Warning

    During the bootstrap process, do not manually restart or power off any of the bare metal hosts.

  8. When the bootstrap is complete, collect and save the following management cluster details in a secure location:

    • The kubeconfig file located in the same directory as the bootstrap script. This file contains the admin credentials for the management cluster.

    • The private ssh_key for access to the management cluster nodes that is located in the same directory as the bootstrap script.

      Note

      If the initial version of your Container Cloud management cluster was earlier than 2.6.0, ssh_key is named openstack_tmp and is located at ~/.ssh/.

    • The URL for the Container Cloud web UI.

      To create users with permissions required for accessing the Container Cloud web UI, see Create initial users after a management cluster bootstrap.

    • The StackLight endpoints. For details, see Access StackLight web UIs.

    • The Keycloak URL that the system outputs when the bootstrap completes. The admin password for Keycloak is located in kaas-bootstrap/passwords.yml along with other IAM passwords.

    Note

    The Container Cloud web UI and StackLight endpoints are available through Transport Layer Security (TLS) and communicate with Keycloak to authenticate users. Keycloak is exposed using HTTPS and self-signed TLS certificates that are not trusted by web browsers.

    To use your own TLS certificates for Keycloak, refer to Configure TLS certificates for cluster applications.

    Note

    When the bootstrap is complete, the bootstrap cluster resources are freed up.

  9. Optional. Available since Container Cloud 2.16.0. Deploy an additional regional cluster of a different provider type as described in Deploy an additional regional cluster (optional).

Configure NIC bonding

You can configure L2 templates for the management cluster to set up a bond network interface for the PXE/management network.

This configuration must be applied to the bootstrap templates, before you run the bootstrap script to deploy the management cluster.

Caution

  • This configuration requires each host in your management cluster to have at least two physical interfaces.

  • Connect at least two interfaces per host to an Ethernet switch that supports Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) port groups and LACP fallback.

  • Configure an LACP group on the ports connected to the NICs of a host.

  • Configure the LACP fallback on the port group to ensure that the host can boot over the PXE network before the bond interface is set up on the host operating system.

  • Configure server BIOS for both NICs of a bond to be PXE-enabled.

  • If the server does not support booting from multiple NICs, configure the port of the LACP group that is connected to the PXE-enabled NIC of a server to be primary port. With this setting, the port becomes active in the fallback mode.

To configure a bond interface that aggregates two interfaces for the PXE/Management network:

  1. In kaas-bootstrap/templates/bm/ipam-objects.yaml.template:

    1. Configure only the following parameters for the declaration of {{nic 0}}, as shown in the example below:

      • dhcp4

      • dhcp6

      • match

      • set-name

      Remove other parameters.

    2. Add the declaration of the second NIC {{nic 1}} to be added to the bond interface:

      • Specify match:mac-address: {{mac 1}} to match the MAC of the desired NIC.

      • Specify set-name: {{nic 1}} to ensure the correct name of the NIC.

    3. Add the declaration of the bond interface bond0. It must have the interfaces parameter listing both Ethernet interfaces.

    4. Set the interfaces parameter of the management network bridge (k8s-lcm in the example below) to include bond0.

      Since Container Cloud 2.20.0 and MOSK 22.4, each node of every cluster must have only one IP address in the LCM network that is allocated from one of the Subnet objects having the ipam/SVC-k8s-lcm label defined. Therefore, all Subnet objects used for LCM networks must have the ipam/SVC-k8s-lcm label defined.

      Since Container Cloud 2.16.0 and MOSK 22.2, you can use any interface name for the LCM network traffic. The Subnet objects for the LCM network must have the ipam/SVC-k8s-lcm label. For details, see Service labels and their life cycle.

    5. Set the addresses, gateway4, and nameservers fields of the management network bridge to fetch data from the kaas-mgmt subnet.

    6. Configure bonding options using the parameters field. The only mandatory option is mode. See the example below for details.

      Note

      You can set any mode supported by netplan and your hardware.

  2. Verify your configuration using the following example:

    kind: L2Template
    metadata:
      name: kaas-mgmt
      ...
    spec:
      ...
      l3Layout:
        - subnetName: kaas-mgmt
          scope:      namespace
      npTemplate: |
        version: 2
        ethernets:
          {{nic 0}}:
            dhcp4: false
            dhcp6: false
            match:
              mac-address: {{mac 0}}
            set-name: {{nic 0}}
          {{nic 1}}:
            dhcp4: false
            dhcp6: false
            match:
              mac-address: {{mac 1}}
            set-name: {{nic 1}}
        bonds:
          bond0:
            interfaces:
              - {{nic 0}}
              - {{nic 1}}
            parameters:
              mode: 802.3ad
            dhcp4: false
            dhcp6: false
        bridges:
          k8s-lcm:
            interfaces: [bond0]
            addresses:
              - {{ip "k8s-lcm:kaas-mgmt"}}
            gateway4: {{gateway_from_subnet "kaas-mgmt"}}
            nameservers:
              addresses: {{nameservers_from_subnet "kaas-mgmt"}}
        ...
    
  3. Proceed to bootstrap your management cluster as described in Bootstrap a management cluster.

Customize the default bare metal host profile

This section describes the bare metal host profile settings and instructs how to configure this profile before deploying Mirantis Container Cloud on physical servers.

The bare metal host profile is a Kubernetes custom resource. It allows the Infrastructure Operator to define how the storage devices and the operating system are provisioned and configured.

The bootstrap templates for a bare metal deployment include the template for the default BareMetalHostProfile object in the following file that defines the default bare metal host profile:

templates/bm/baremetalhostprofiles.yaml.template

Note

Using BareMetalHostProfile, you can configure LVM or mdadm-based software RAID support during a management or managed cluster creation. For details, see Configure RAID support.

This feature is available as Technology Preview. Use such configuration for testing and evaluation purposes only. For the Technology Preview feature definition, refer to Technology Preview features.

Warning

All data will be wiped during cluster deployment on devices defined directly or indirectly in the fileSystems list of BareMetalHostProfile. For example:

  • A raw device partition with a file system on it

  • A device partition in a volume group with a logical volume that has a file system on it

  • An mdadm RAID device with a file system on it

  • An LVM RAID device with a file system on it

The wipe field is always considered true for these devices. The false value is ignored.

Therefore, to prevent data loss, move the necessary data from these file systems to another server beforehand, if required.

The customization procedure of BareMetalHostProfile is almost the same for the management and managed clusters, with the following differences:

  • For a management cluster, the customization automatically applies to machines during bootstrap. And for a managed cluster, you apply the changes using kubectl before creating a managed cluster.

  • For a management cluster, you edit the default baremetalhostprofiles.yaml.template. And for a managed cluster, you create a new BareMetalHostProfile with the necessary configuration.

For the procedure details, see Create a custom bare metal host profile. Use this procedure for both types of clusters considering the differences described above.

Separate PXE and management networks

This section describes how to configure a dedicated PXE network for a management or regional bare metal cluster. A separate PXE network allows isolating sensitive bare metal provisioning process from the end users. The users still have access to Container Cloud services, such as Keycloak, to authenticate workloads in managed clusters, such as Horizon in a Mirantis OpenStack for Kubernetes cluster.

Note

This additional configuration procedure must be completed as part of the Prepare metadata and deploy the management cluster steps. It substitutes or appends some configuration parameters and templates that are used in Prepare metadata and deploy the management cluster for the management cluster to use two networks, PXE and management, instead of one PXE/management network. We recommend considering the Prepare metadata and deploy the management cluster procedure first.

The following table describes the overall network mapping scheme with all L2/L3 parameters, for example, for two networks, PXE (CIDR 10.0.0.0/24) and management (CIDR 10.0.11.0/24):

Network mapping overview

Deployment file name

Network

Parameters and values

cluster.yaml

Management

  • SET_LB_HOST=10.0.11.90

  • SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL=10.0.11.61-10.0.11.80

ipam-objects.yaml

PXE

  • SET_IPAM_CIDR=10.0.0.0/24

  • SET_PXE_NW_GW=10.0.0.1

  • SET_PXE_NW_DNS=8.8.8.8

  • SET_IPAM_POOL_RANGE=10.0.0.100-10.0.0.109

  • SET_METALLB_PXE_ADDR_POOL=10.0.0.61-10.0.0.70

ipam-objects.yaml

Management

  • SET_LCM_CIDR=10.0.11.0/24

  • SET_LCM_RANGE=10.0.11.100-10.0.11.199

  • SET_LB_HOST=10.0.11.90

  • SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL=10.0.11.61-10.0.11.80

bootstrap.sh

PXE

  • KAAS_BM_PXE_IP=10.0.0.20

  • KAAS_BM_PXE_MASK=24

  • KAAS_BM_PXE_BRIDGE=br0

  • KAAS_BM_BM_DHCP_RANGE=10.0.0.30,10.0.0.59,255.255.255.0

  • BOOTSTRAP_METALLB_ADDRESS_POOL=10.0.0.61-10.0.0.80


When using a separate PXE network, the management cluster services are exposed in different networks using two separate MetalLB address pools:

  • Services exposed through the PXE network are as follows:

    • Ironic API (bare metal provisioning server)

    • HTTP server that provides images for network boot and server provisioning

    • Caching server for accessing the Container Cloud artifacts deployed on hosts

  • Services exposed through the management network are all other Container Cloud services, such as Keycloak, web UI, and so on

To configure separate PXE and management networks:

  1. In kaas-bootstrap/templates/bm/ipam-objects.yaml.template:

    • Substitute all the Subnet object templates with the new ones as described in the example template below

    • Update the L2 template spec.l3Layout and spec.npTemplate fields as described in the example template below

    The last Subnet template named mgmt-pxe-lb in the example above will be used to configure the MetalLB address pool in the PXE network. The bare metal provider will automatically configure MetalLB with address pools using the Subnet objects identified by specific labels.

    Use the following labels to identify the Subnet object as a MetalLB address pool and configure the name and protocol for that address pool. All labels below are mandatory for the Subnet object that configures a MetalLB address pool.

    Mandatory Subnet labels for a MetalLB address pool

    Label

    Description

    ipam/SVC-MetalLB

    Defines that the Subnet object will be used to provide a new address pool/range for MetalLB.

    metallb/address-pool-name

    Sets the name services-pxe for the newly created address pool. The services-pxe address pool name is mandatory when configuring a dedicated PXE network in the management cluster. This name will be used in annotations for services exposed through the PXE network. Every address pool must have a distinct name except the default name that is reserved for the management network.

    metallb/address-pool-protocol

    Sets the address pool protocol. The only supported value is layer2 (default).

    cluster.sigs.k8s.io/cluster-name

    Specifies the management or regional cluster name that the Subnet should be bound to.

    Caution

    Do not set the same address pool name for two or more Subnet objects. Otherwise, the corresponding MetalLB address pool configuration fails with a warning message in the bare metal provider log.

    Optional Subnet labels for a MetalLB address pool

    Label

    Description

    metallb/address-pool-auto-assign

    Configures the auto-assign policy of an address pool. The supported values are false and true. Defaults to false for address pools configured using Subnet. It is set to true and not configurable for address pools configured using a cluster specification.

    For any service that does not have a specific MetalLB annotation configured, MetalLB allocates IPs from arbitrary address pools that have the auto-assign policy set to true.

    Caution

    • At least one MetalLB address pool must have the auto-assign policy enabled so that unannotated services can have load balancer IPs allocated for them. To satisfy this requirement, either configure one of address pools using the cluster specification or configure it using Subnet with metallb/address-pool-auto-assign: "true".

    • When configuring multiple address pools with the auto-assign policy enabled, keep in mind that it is not determined which of those address pools will be used to allocate an IP for a particular unannotated service.

  2. Verify the current MetalLB configuration that is stored in the ConfigMap object:

    kubectl -n metallb-system get cm metallb -o jsonpath={.data.config}
    

    For the example configuration described above, the following lines must appear in the ConfigMap for MetalLB:

    address-pools:
    - name: default
      protocol: layer2
      addresses:
      - 10.0.11.61-10.0.11.80
    - name: services-pxe
      protocol: layer2
      auto-assign: false
      addresses:
      - 10.0.0.61-10.0.0.70
    

    The auto-assign parameter will be set to false for all address pools except the default one. So, a particular service will get an address from such an address pool only if the Service object has a special metallb.universe.tf/address-pool annotation that points to the specific address pool name.

    Note

    It is expected that every Container Cloud service on a management and regional cluster will be assigned to one of the address pools. Current consideration is to have two MetalLB address pools:

    • services-pxe is a reserved address pool name to use for the Container Cloud services in the PXE network (Ironic API, HTTP server, caching server)

    • default is an address pool to use for all other Container Cloud services in the management network. No annotation is required on the Service objects in this case.

  3. In kaas-bootstrap/templates/bm/cluster.yaml.template, add the dedicatedMetallbPools flag and set it to true:

    spec:
      ...
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: baremetal.k8s.io/v1alpha1
          kind: BaremetalClusterProviderSpec
          ...
          dedicatedMetallbPools: true
          ...
    

    User sets this flag to enable splitting of LB endpoints for the Container Cloud services. The metallb.universe.tf/address-pool annotations on the Service objects are configured by the bare metal provider automatically when the dedicatedMetallbPools flag is set to true.

    Example Service object configured by the baremetal-operator Helm release:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
      name: ironic-api
      annotations:
        metallb.universe.tf/address-pool: services-pxe
    spec:
      ports:
      - port: 443
        targetPort: 443
      type: LoadBalancer
    

    The metallb.universe.tf/address-pool annotation on the Service object is set to services-pxe by the baremetal provider, so the ironic-api service will be assigned an LB address from the corresponding MetalLB address pool.

  4. In addition to the network parameters defined in Prepare metadata and deploy the management cluster, configure the following ones by replacing them in templates/bm/ipam-objects.yaml.template:

    New subnet template parameters

    Parameter

    Description

    Example value

    SET_LCM_CIDR

    Address of a management network for the management cluster in the CIDR notation. You can later share this network with managed clusters where it will act as the LCM network. If managed clusters have their separate LCM networks, those networks must be routable to the management network.

    10.0.11.0/24

    SET_LCM_RANGE

    Address range that includes addresses to be allocated to bare metal hosts in the management network for the management cluster. When this network is shared with managed clusters, the size of this range limits the number of hosts that can be deployed in all clusters that share this network. When this network is solely used by a management cluster, the range should include at least 3 IP addresses for bare metal hosts of the management cluster.

    10.0.11.100-10.0.11.109

    SET_METALLB_PXE_ADDR_POOL

    Address range to be used for LB endpoints of the Container Cloud services: Ironic-API, HTTP server, and caching server. This range must be within the PXE network. The minimum required range is 5 IP addresses.

    10.0.0.61-10.0.0.70

    The following parameters will now be tied to the management network while their meaning remains the same as described in Prepare metadata and deploy the management cluster:

    Subnet template parameters migrated to management network

    Parameter

    Description

    Example value

    SET_LB_HOST

    IP address of the externally accessible API endpoint of the management cluster. This address must NOT be within the SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL range but within the management network. External load balancers are not supported.

    10.0.11.90

    SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL

    The address range to be used for the externally accessible LB endpoints of the Container Cloud services, such as Keycloak, web UI, and so on. This range must be within the management network. The minimum required range is 19 IP addresses.

    10.0.11.61-10.0.11.80

  5. Proceed to further steps in Prepare metadata and deploy the management cluster.

Configure multiple DHCP ranges using Subnet resources

To facilitate multi-rack and other types of distributed bare metal datacenter topologies, the dnsmasq DHCP server used for host provisioning in Container Cloud supports working with multiple L2 segments through network routers that support DHCP relay.

Caution

Networks used for hosts provisioning of a managed cluster must have routes to the PXE network (when a dedicated PXE network is configured) or to the combined PXE/management network of the management cluster. This configuration enables hosts to have access to the management cluster services that are used during host provisioning.

To configure DHCP ranges for dnsmasq, create the Subnet objects tagged with the ipam/SVC-dhcp-range label while setting up subnets for a managed cluster using CLI.

For every dhcp-range record, Container Cloud also configures the dhcp-option record to pass the default route through the default gateway from the corresponding subnet to all hosts that obtain addresses from that DHCP range. You can also specify DNS server addresses for servers that boot over PXE. They will be configured by Container Cloud using another dhcp-option record.

Note

  • The Subnet objects for DHCP ranges should not reference any specific cluster, as DHCP server configuration is only applicable to the management or regional cluster. The kaas.mirantis.com/region label that specifies the region will be used to determine where to apply the DHCP ranges from the given Subnet object. The Cluster reference will be ignored.

  • The baremetal-operator chart allows using multiple DHCP ranges in the dnsmasq.conf file. The chart iterates over a list of the dhcp-range parameters from its values and adds all items from the list to the dnsmasq configuration.

  • The baremetal-operator chart allows using single DHCP range for backwards compatibility. By default, the KAAS_BM_BM_DHCP_RANGE environment variable is still used to define the DHCP range for a management or regional cluster nodes during provisioning.

Override the default dnsmasq settings

The dnsmasq configuration options dhcp-option=3 and dhcp-option=6 are absent in the default configuration. So, by default, dnsmasq will send the DNS server and default route to DHCP clients as defined in the dnsmasq official documentation:

  • The netmask and broadcast address are the same as on the host running dnsmasq.

  • The DNS server and default route are set to the address of the host running dnsmasq.

  • If the domain name option is set, this name is sent to DHCP clients.

If such default behavior is not desirable during deployment of managed clusters:

  1. Open the management cluster spec for editing.

  2. In the baremetal-operator release values, remove the dnsmasq.dhcp_range parameter:

    regional:
    - helmReleases:
      - name: baremetal-operator
        values:
          dnsmasq:
            dhcp_range: 10.204.1.0,10.204.5.255,255.255.255.0
    
  3. Set the desired DHCP ranges and options using the Subnet objects as described in Configure DHCP ranges for dnsmasq.

Configure DHCP ranges for dnsmasq
  1. Create the Subnet objects tagged with the ipam/SVC-dhcp-range label.

    To create the Subnet objects, refer to Create subnets.

    Use the following Subnet object example to specify DHCP ranges and DHCP options to pass the default route and DNS server addresses:

    apiVersion: "ipam.mirantis.com/v1alpha1"
    kind: Subnet
    metadata:
      name: mgmt-dhcp-range
      namespace: default
      labels:
        ipam/SVC-dhcp-range: ""
        kaas.mirantis.com/provider: baremetal
        kaas.mirantis.com/region: region-one
    spec:
      cidr: 10.0.0.0/24
      gateway: 10.0.0.1
      includeRanges:
        - 10.0.0.121-10.0.0.125
        - 10.0.0.191-10.0.0.199
      nameservers:
      - 172.118.24.6
      - 8.8.8.8
    

    After creating the above Subnet object, the following dnsmasq parameters will be set using the baremetal-operator Helm chart:

    dhcp-range=set:mgmt-dhcp-range-0,10.0.0.121,10.0.0.125,255.255.255.0
    dhcp-range=set:mgmt-dhcp-range-1,10.0.0.191,10.0.0.199,255.255.255.0
    dhcp-option=tag:mgmt-dhcp-range-0,option:router,10.0.0.1
    dhcp-option=tag:mgmt-dhcp-range-1,option:router,10.0.0.1
    dhcp-option=tag:mgmt-dhcp-range-0,option:dns-server,172.118.24.6,8.8.8.8
    dhcp-option=tag:mgmt-dhcp-range-1,option:dns-server,172.118.24.6,8.8.8.8
    
    The dnsmasq parameters composed from the Subnet object

    Parameter

    Description

    dhcp-range=set:mgmt-dhcp-range-0,10.0.0.121,10.0.0.125,255.255.255.0

    DHCP range is set according to the cidr and includeRanges parameters of the Subnet object. The mgmt-dhcp-range-0 tag is formed from the Subnet object name and address range index within the Subnet object.

    dhcp-option=tag:mgmt-dhcp-range-0,option:router,10.0.0.1

    The default router option is set according to the gateway parameter of the Subnet object. The tag is the same as in the dhcp-range parameter.

    dhcp-option=tag:mgmt-dhcp-range-0,option:dns-server,172.118.24.6,8.8.8.8

    Optional, available when the nameservers parameter is set in the Subnet object. The DNS server option is set according to the nameservers parameter of the Subnet object. The tag is the same as in the dhcp-range parameter.

  2. Verify that the changes are applied to dnsmasq.conf:

    kubectl --kubeconfig <pathToMgmtOrRegionalClusterKubeconfig> \
    -n kaas get cm dnsmasq-config -ojson| jq -r '.data."dnsmasq.conf"'
    
Configure DHCP relay on ToR switches

For servers to access the DHCP server across the L2 segment boundaries, for example, from another rack with a different VLAN for PXE network, you must configure DHCP relay service on the border switch of the segment. For example, on a top-of-rack (ToR) or leaf (distribution) switch, depending on the data center network topology.

In Container Cloud, the dnsmasq server listens on the PXE interface of the management cluster node.

To configure DHCP relay, you need to specify the address(es) of a DHCP helper or the server that handles DHCP requests.

Depending on the PXE network setup, select from the following options:

  • If the PXE network is combined with the management network, identify LCM addresses of the management cluster nodes:

    kubectl -n default get lcmmachine -o wide
    

    In the output, select the addresses from the INTERNALIP column to use as the DHCP helper addresses.

  • If you use a dedicated PXE network, identify the addresses assigned to your nodes using the corresponding IpamHost objects:

    kubectl -n default get ipamhost -o yaml
    

    In status.netconfigV2 of each management cluster host, obtain the interface name used for PXE network and collect associated addresses to use as the DHCP helper addresses. For example:

    status:
      ...
      netconfigV2:
        ...
        bridges:
          ...
          k8s-pxe:
            addresses:
            - 10.0.1.4/24
            dhcp4: false
            dhcp6: false
            interfaces:
            - ens3
    

    In this example, k8s-pxe is the PXE interface name and 10.0.1.4 is the address to use as one of the DHCP helper addresses.

Deploy an OpenStack-based management cluster

This section describes how to bootstrap an OpenStack-based Mirantis Container Cloud management cluster.

Workflow overview

The Infrastructure Operator performs the following steps to install Mirantis Container Cloud on an OpenStack-based environment:

  1. Prepare an OpenStack environment that meets the Requirements for an OpenStack-based cluster.

  2. Prepare the bootstrap node using Prerequisites.

  3. Obtain the Mirantis license file that will be required during the bootstrap.

  4. Prepare the OpenStack clouds.yaml file.

  5. Create and configure the deployment configuration files that include the cluster and machines metadata.

  6. Run the bootstrap script for the fully automated installation of the management cluster.

For more details, see Bootstrap a management cluster.

Prerequisites

Before you start with bootstrapping the OpenStack-based management cluster, complete the following prerequisite steps:

  1. Verify that your planned cloud meets the reference hardware bill of material and software requirements as described in Requirements for an OpenStack-based cluster.

  2. Configure the bootstrap node:

    1. Log in to any personal computer or VM running Ubuntu 20.04 that you will be using as the bootstrap node.

    2. If you use a newly created VM, run:

      sudo apt-get update
      
    3. Install the current Docker version available for Ubuntu 20.04:

      sudo apt install docker.io
      
    4. Grant your USER access to the Docker daemon:

      sudo usermod -aG docker $USER
      
    5. Log off and log in again to the bootstrap node to apply the changes.

    6. Verify that Docker is configured correctly and has access to Container Cloud CDN. For example:

      docker run --rm alpine sh -c "apk add --no-cache curl; \
      curl https://binary.mirantis.com"
      

      The system output must contain no error records. In case of issues, follow the steps provided in Troubleshooting.

    Note

    If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server for security and audit purposes, configure Docker proxy settings as described in the official Docker documentation.

  3. Proceed to Bootstrap a management cluster.

Bootstrap a management cluster

After you complete the prerequisite steps described in Prerequisites, proceed with bootstrapping your OpenStack-based Mirantis Container Cloud management cluster.

To bootstrap an OpenStack-based management cluster:

  1. Log in to the bootstrap node running Ubuntu 20.04 that is configured as described in Prerequisites.

  2. Prepare the bootstrap script:

    1. Download and run the Container Cloud bootstrap script:

      apt install wget
      wget https://binary.mirantis.com/releases/get_container_cloud.sh
      chmod 0755 get_container_cloud.sh
      ./get_container_cloud.sh
      
    2. Change the directory to the kaas-bootstrap folder created by the script.

  3. Obtain your license file that will be required during the bootstrap:

    1. Create a user account at www.mirantis.com.

    2. Log in to your account and download the mirantis.lic license file.

    3. Save the license file as mirantis.lic under the kaas-bootstrap directory on the bootstrap node.

    4. Verify that mirantis.lic contains the exact Container Cloud license previously downloaded from www.mirantis.com by decoding the license JWT token, for example, using jwt.io.

      Example of a valid decoded Container Cloud license data with the mandatory license field:

      {
          "exp": 1652304773,
          "iat": 1636669973,
          "sub": "demo",
          "license": {
              "dev": false,
              "limits": {
                  "clusters": 10,
                  "workers_per_cluster": 10
              },
              "openstack": null
          }
      }
      

      Warning

      The MKE license does not apply to mirantis.lic. For details about MKE license, see MKE documentation.

  4. Prepare the OpenStack configuration for a new cluster:

    1. Log in to the OpenStack Horizon.

    2. In the Project section, select API Access.

    3. In the right-side drop-down menu Download OpenStack RC File, select OpenStack clouds.yaml File.

    4. Save the downloaded clouds.yaml file in the kaas-bootstrap folder created by the get_container_cloud.sh script.

    5. In clouds.yaml, add the password field with your OpenStack password under the clouds/openstack/auth section.

      Example:

      clouds:
        openstack:
          auth:
            auth_url: https://auth.openstack.example.com/v3
            username: your_username
            password: your_secret_password
            project_id: your_project_id
            user_domain_name: your_user_domain_name
          region_name: RegionOne
          interface: public
          identity_api_version: 3
      
    6. Available since Container Cloud 2.17.0. If you deploy Container Cloud on top of MOSK Victoria with Tungsten Fabric and use the default security group for newly created load balancers, add the following rules for Kubernetes API server endpoint, Container Cloud application endpoint, and for MKE web UI and API using the OpenStack CLI:

      • direction='ingress'

      • ethertype='IPv4'

      • protocol='tcp'

      • remote_ip_prefix='0.0.0.0/0'

      • port_range_max and port_range_min:

        • '443' for Kubernetes API and Container Cloud application endpoints

        • '6443' for MKE web UI and API

    7. Verify access to the target cloud endpoint from Docker. For example:

      docker run --rm alpine sh -c "apk add --no-cache curl; \
      curl https://auth.openstack.example.com/v3"
      

      The system output must contain no error records.

    In case of issues, follow the steps provided in Troubleshooting.

  5. Configure the cluster and machines metadata:

    1. In templates/machines.yaml.template, modify the spec:providerSpec:value section for 3 control plane nodes marked with the cluster.sigs.k8s.io/control-plane label by substituting the flavor and image parameters with the corresponding values of the control plane nodes in the related OpenStack cluster. For example:

      spec: &cp_spec
        providerSpec:
          value:
            apiVersion: "openstackproviderconfig.k8s.io/v1alpha1"
            kind: "OpenstackMachineProviderSpec"
            flavor: kaas.minimal
            image: bionic-server-cloudimg-amd64-20190612
      

      Note

      The flavor parameter value provided in the example above is cloud-specific and must meet the Container Cloud requirements.

      Also, modify other parameters as required.

    2. Modify the templates/cluster.yaml.template parameters to fit your deployment. For example, add the corresponding values for cidrBlocks in the spec::clusterNetwork::services section.

  6. Optional. Available since Container Cloud 2.18.0 as TechPreview. To boot cluster machines from a block storage volume, define the following parameter in the spec:providerSpec section of templates/machines.yaml.template:

    bootFromVolume:
      enabled: true
      volumeSize: 120
    

    Note

    The minimal storage requirement is 120 GB per node. For details, see Requirements for an OpenStack-based cluster.

    To boot the Bastion node from a volume, add the same parameter to templates/cluster.yaml.template in the spec:providerSpec section for Bastion. The default amount of storage 80 is enough.

  7. Optional. Configure backups for the MariaDB database as described in Configure periodic backups of MariaDB for AWS and OpenStack providers.

  8. Optional if servers from the Ubuntu NTP pool (*.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org) are accessible from the node where the management cluster is being provisioned. Otherwise, this step is mandatory.

    Configure the regional NTP server parameters to be applied to all machines of regional and managed clusters in the specified region.

    In templates/cluster.yaml.template, add the ntp:servers section with the list of required servers names:

    spec:
      ...
      providerSpec:
        value:
          kaas:
          ...
            regional:
              - helmReleases:
                - name: openstack-provider
                  values:
                    config:
                      lcm:
                        ...
                        ntp:
                          servers:
                          - 0.pool.ntp.org
                          ...
                provider: openstack
                ...
    
  9. Optional. If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server, in bootstrap.env, add the following environment variables to bootstrap the management and regional cluster using proxy:

    • HTTP_PROXY

    • HTTPS_PROXY

    • NO_PROXY

    • PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH

    Example snippet:

    export HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.example.com:3128
    export HTTPS_PROXY=http://user:pass@proxy.example.com:3128
    export NO_PROXY=172.18.10.0,registry.internal.lan
    export PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH="/home/ubuntu/.mitmproxy/mitmproxy-ca-cert.cer"
    

    The following formats of variables are accepted:

    Proxy configuration data

    Variable

    Format

    HTTP_PROXY
    HTTPS_PROXY
    • http://proxy.example.com:port - for anonymous access

    • http://user:password@proxy.example.com:port - for restricted access

    NO_PROXY

    Comma-separated list of IP addresses or domain names

    PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH Available since 2.20.0 as GA

    Optional. Path to the proxy CA certificate for man-in-the-middle (MITM) proxies. Must be placed on the bootstrap node to be trusted. For details, see Install a CA certificate for a MITM proxy on a bootstrap node.

    Warning

    If you require Internet access to go through a MITM proxy, ensure that the proxy has streaming enabled as described in Enable streaming for MITM.

    Note

    • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, this parameter is generally available for the OpenStack, bare metal, Equinix Metal with private networking, AWS, and vSphere providers

    • For MOSK-based deployments, the feature support is available since MOSK 22.4

    • Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, this parameter is available as TechPreview for the OpenStack and bare metal providers only

    • For Azure and Equinix Metal with public networking, the feature is not supported

    For implementation details, see Proxy and cache support.

    For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Requirements for an OpenStack-based cluster.

  10. Optional. Configure external identity provider for IAM.

  11. Optional, Technology Preview in Container Cloud 2.18.0. Removed in Container Cloud 2.19.0 for compatibility reasons, currently not supported. Enables encryption for the Kubernetes workloads network using the following field to the Cluster object spec:

     spec:
       providerSpec:
         value:
           secureOverlay: true
    

    For more details, see MKE documentation: Kubernetes network encryption.

    • When the option is enabled, Calico networking is configured to use IP-in-IP overlay and BGP routing.

    • When the option is disabled, Calico networking is configured to use VXLAN overlay (no BGP).

  12. Run the bootstrap script:

    ./bootstrap.sh all
    
    • In case of deployment issues, refer to Troubleshooting and inspect logs.

    • If the script fails for an unknown reason:

      1. Run the cleanup script:

        ./bootstrap.sh cleanup
        
      2. Rerun the bootstrap script.

  13. When the bootstrap is complete, collect and save the following management cluster details in a secure location:

    • The kubeconfig file located in the same directory as the bootstrap script. This file contains the admin credentials for the management cluster.

    • The private ssh_key for access to the management cluster nodes that is located in the same directory as the bootstrap script.

      Note

      If the initial version of your Container Cloud management cluster was earlier than 2.6.0, ssh_key is named openstack_tmp and is located at ~/.ssh/.

    • The URL for the Container Cloud web UI.

      To create users with permissions required for accessing the Container Cloud web UI, see Create initial users after a management cluster bootstrap.

    • The StackLight endpoints. For details, see Access StackLight web UIs.

    • The Keycloak URL that the system outputs when the bootstrap completes. The admin password for Keycloak is located in kaas-bootstrap/passwords.yml along with other IAM passwords.

    Note

    The Container Cloud web UI and StackLight endpoints are available through Transport Layer Security (TLS) and communicate with Keycloak to authenticate users. Keycloak is exposed using HTTPS and self-signed TLS certificates that are not trusted by web browsers.

    To use your own TLS certificates for Keycloak, refer to Configure TLS certificates for cluster applications.

    Note

    When the bootstrap is complete, the bootstrap cluster resources are freed up.

  14. Optional. Deploy an additional regional cluster as described in Deploy an additional regional cluster (optional).

Now, you can proceed with operating your management cluster using the Container Cloud web UI and deploying managed clusters as described in Create and operate an OpenStack-based managed cluster.

Deploy an AWS-based management cluster

This section describes how to bootstrap a Mirantis Container Cloud management cluster that is based on the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud provider.

Workflow overview

The Infrastructure Operator performs the following steps to install Mirantis Container Cloud on an AWS-based environment:

  1. Prepare an AWS environment that meets the Requirements for an AWS-based cluster.

  2. Prepare the bootstrap node as per Prerequisites.

  3. Obtain the Mirantis license file that will be required during the bootstrap.

  4. Prepare the AWS environment credentials.

  5. Create and configure the deployment configuration files that include the cluster and machines metadata.

  6. Run the bootstrap script for the fully automated installation of the management cluster.

For more details, see Bootstrap a management cluster.

Prerequisites

Before you start with bootstrapping the AWS-based management cluster, complete the following prerequisite steps:

  1. Inspect the Requirements for an AWS-based cluster to understand the potential impact of the Container Cloud deployment on your AWS cloud usage.

  2. Configure the bootstrap node:

    1. Log in to any personal computer or VM running Ubuntu 20.04 that you will be using as the bootstrap node.

    2. If you use a newly created VM, run:

      sudo apt-get update
      
    3. Install the current Docker version available for Ubuntu 20.04:

      sudo apt install docker.io
      
    4. Grant your USER access to the Docker daemon:

      sudo usermod -aG docker $USER
      
    5. Log off and log in again to the bootstrap node to apply the changes.

    6. Verify that Docker is configured correctly and has access to Container Cloud CDN. For example:

      docker run --rm alpine sh -c "apk add --no-cache curl; \
      curl https://binary.mirantis.com"
      

      The system output must contain no error records. In case of issues, follow the steps provided in Troubleshooting.

    Note

    If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server for security and audit purposes, configure Docker proxy settings as described in the official Docker documentation.

  3. Proceed to Bootstrap a management cluster.

Bootstrap a management cluster

After you complete the prerequisite steps described in Prerequisites, proceed with bootstrapping your AWS-based Mirantis Container Cloud management cluster.

To bootstrap an AWS-based management cluster:

  1. Log in to the bootstrap node running Ubuntu 20.04 that is configured as described in Prerequisites.

  2. Prepare the bootstrap script:

    1. Download and run the Container Cloud bootstrap script:

      apt install wget
      wget https://binary.mirantis.com/releases/get_container_cloud.sh
      chmod 0755 get_container_cloud.sh
      ./get_container_cloud.sh
      
    2. Change the directory to the kaas-bootstrap folder created by the script.

  3. Obtain your license file that will be required during the bootstrap:

    1. Create a user account at www.mirantis.com.

    2. Log in to your account and download the mirantis.lic license file.

    3. Save the license file as mirantis.lic under the kaas-bootstrap directory on the bootstrap node.

    4. Verify that mirantis.lic contains the exact Container Cloud license previously downloaded from www.mirantis.com by decoding the license JWT token, for example, using jwt.io.

      Example of a valid decoded Container Cloud license data with the mandatory license field:

      {
          "exp": 1652304773,
          "iat": 1636669973,
          "sub": "demo",
          "license": {
              "dev": false,
              "limits": {
                  "clusters": 10,
                  "workers_per_cluster": 10
              },
              "openstack": null
          }
      }
      

      Warning

      The MKE license does not apply to mirantis.lic. For details about MKE license, see MKE documentation.

  4. Prepare the AWS deployment templates:

    1. Verify access to the target cloud endpoint from Docker. For example:

      docker run --rm alpine sh -c "apk add --no-cache curl; \
      curl https://ec2.amazonaws.com"
      

      The system output must contain no error records. In case of issues, follow the steps provided in Troubleshooting.

    2. Change the directory to the kaas-bootstrap folder.

    3. In templates/aws/machines.yaml.template, modify the spec:providerSpec:value section by substituting the ami:id parameter with the corresponding value for Ubuntu 20.04 from the required AWS region. For example:

      spec:
        providerSpec:
          value:
            apiVersion: aws.kaas.mirantis.com/v1alpha1
            kind: AWSMachineProviderSpec
            instanceType: c5.4xlarge
            ami:
              id: ami-033a0960d9d83ead0
      

      Also, modify other parameters as required.

      Warning

      Do not stop the AWS instances dedicated to the Container Cloud clusters to prevent data failure and cluster disaster.

    4. Optional. In templates/aws/cluster.yaml.template, modify the values of the spec:providerSpec:value:bastion:amiId and spec:providerSpec:value:bastion:instanceType sections by setting the necessary Ubuntu AMI ID and instance type in the required AWS region respectively. For example:

      spec:
        providerSpec:
          value:
            apiVersion: aws.kaas.mirantis.com/v1alpha1
            kind: AWSClusterProviderSpec
            bastion:
              amiId: ami-0fb653ca2d3203ac1
              instanceType: t3.micro
      
    5. Optional. In templates/aws/cluster.yaml.template, modify the default configuration of the AWS instance types and AMI IDs for further creation of managed clusters:

      providerSpec:
          value:
            ...
            kaas:
              ...
              regional:
              - provider: aws
                helmReleases:
                  - name: aws-credentials-controller
                    values:
                      config:
                        allowedInstanceTypes:
                          minVCPUs: 8
                          # in MiB
                          minMemory: 16384
                          # in GB
                          minStorage: 120
                          supportedArchitectures:
                          - "x86_64"
                          filters:
                          - name: instance-storage-info.disk.type
                            values:
                              - "ssd"
                        allowedAMIs:
                        -
                          - name: name
                            values:
                            - "ubuntu/images/hvm-ssd/ubuntu-focal-20.04-amd64-server-20210325"
                          - name: owner-id
                            values:
                            - "099720109477"
      

      Also, modify other parameters as required.

  5. Optional. Configure backups for the MariaDB database as described in Configure periodic backups of MariaDB for AWS and OpenStack providers.

  6. Optional if servers from the Ubuntu NTP pool (*.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org) are accessible from the node where the management cluster is being provisioned. Otherwise, this step is mandatory.

    Configure the regional NTP server parameters to be applied to all machines of regional and managed clusters in the specified region.

    In templates/aws/cluster.yaml.template, add the ntp:servers section with the list of required servers names:

    spec:
      ...
      providerSpec:
        value:
          kaas:
          ...
            regional:
              - helmReleases:
                - name: aws-provider
                  values:
                    config:
                      lcm:
                        ...
                        ntp:
                          servers:
                          - 0.pool.ntp.org
                          ...
                provider: aws
                ...
    
  7. Generate the AWS Access Key ID with Secret Access Key for the user with the IAMFullAccess permissions and select the AWS default region name. For details, see AWS General Reference: Programmatic access.

  8. Export the following parameters by adding the corresponding values for the AWS IAMFullAccess user credentials created in the previous step:

    export KAAS_AWS_ENABLED=true
    export AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=XXXXXXX
    export AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=XXXXXXX
    export AWS_DEFAULT_REGION=us-east-2
    
  9. For Container Cloud to communicate with the AWS APIs, create the AWS CloudFormation stack that contains properly configured IAM users and policies.

    Note

    If the AWS CloudFormation stack already exists in your AWS account, skip this step.

    ./container-cloud bootstrap aws policy
    

    If you do not have access to create the CloudFormation stack, users, or policies:

    1. Log in to your AWS Management Console.

    2. On the home page, expand the upper right menu with your user name and capture your Account ID.

    3. Create the CloudFormation template:

      ./container-cloud bootstrap aws policy --account-id <accountId> --dump > cf.yaml
      

      Substitute the parameter enclosed in angle brackets with the corresponding value.

    4. Send the cf.yaml template to your AWS account admin to create the CloudFormation stack from this template.

      The generated template includes the following lists of IAM permissions:

      • ec2:DescribeInstances

      • ec2:DescribeRegions

      • ecr:GetAuthorizationToken

      • ecr:BatchCheckLayerAvailability

      • ecr:GetDownloadUrlForLayer

      • ecr:GetRepositoryPolicy

      • ecr:DescribeRepositories

      • ecr:ListImages

      • ecr:BatchGetImage

      • ec2:AllocateAddress

      • ec2:AssociateRouteTable

      • ec2:AttachInternetGateway

      • ec2:AuthorizeSecurityGroupIngress

      • ec2:CreateInternetGateway

      • ec2:CreateNatGateway

      • ec2:CreateRoute

      • ec2:CreateRouteTable

      • ec2:CreateSecurityGroup

      • ec2:CreateSubnet

      • ec2:CreateTags

      • ec2:CreateVpc

      • ec2:ModifyVpcAttribute

      • ec2:DeleteInternetGateway

      • ec2:DeleteNatGateway

      • ec2:DeleteRouteTable

      • ec2:DeleteSecurityGroup

      • ec2:DeleteSubnet

      • ec2:DeleteTags

      • ec2:DeleteVpc

      • ec2:DescribeAccountAttributes

      • ec2:DescribeAddresses

      • ec2:DescribeAvailabilityZones

      • ec2:DescribeInstances

      • ec2:DescribeInstanceTypes

      • ec2:DescribeInternetGateways

      • ec2:DescribeImages

      • ec2:DescribeNatGateways

      • ec2:DescribeNetworkInterfaces

      • ec2:DescribeNetworkInterfaceAttribute

      • ec2:DescribeRegions

      • ec2:DescribeRouteTables

      • ec2:DescribeSecurityGroups

      • ec2:DescribeSubnets

      • ec2:DescribeVpcs

      • ec2:DescribeVpcAttribute

      • ec2:DescribeVolumes

      • ec2:DetachInternetGateway

      • ec2:DisassociateRouteTable

      • ec2:DisassociateAddress

      • ec2:ModifyInstanceAttribute

      • ec2:ModifyNetworkInterfaceAttribute

      • ec2:ModifySubnetAttribute

      • ec2:ReleaseAddress

      • ec2:RevokeSecurityGroupIngress

      • ec2:RunInstances

      • ec2:TerminateInstances

      • tag:GetResources

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:ConfigureHealthCheck

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeLoadBalancers

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeLoadBalancerAttributes

      • elasticloadbalancing:ModifyLoadBalancerAttributes

      • elasticloadbalancing:RegisterInstancesWithLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeTargetGroups

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateTargetGroup

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteTargetGroup

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeListeners

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateListener

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteListener

      • elasticloadbalancing:RegisterTargets

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeregisterTargets

      • autoscaling:DescribeAutoScalingGroups

      • autoscaling:DescribeLaunchConfigurations

      • autoscaling:DescribeTags

      • ec2:DescribeInstances

      • ec2:DescribeImages

      • ec2:DescribeRegions

      • ec2:DescribeRouteTables

      • ec2:DescribeSecurityGroups

      • ec2:DescribeSubnets

      • ec2:DescribeVolumes

      • ec2:CreateSecurityGroup

      • ec2:CreateTags

      • ec2:CreateVolume

      • ec2:ModifyInstanceAttribute

      • ec2:ModifyVolume

      • ec2:AttachVolume

      • ec2:AuthorizeSecurityGroupIngress

      • ec2:CreateRoute

      • ec2:DeleteRoute

      • ec2:DeleteSecurityGroup

      • ec2:DeleteVolume

      • ec2:DetachVolume

      • ec2:RevokeSecurityGroupIngress

      • ec2:DescribeVpcs

      • elasticloadbalancing:AddTags

      • elasticloadbalancing:AttachLoadBalancerToSubnets

      • elasticloadbalancing:ApplySecurityGroupsToLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancerPolicy

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancerListeners

      • elasticloadbalancing:ConfigureHealthCheck

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteLoadBalancerListeners

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeLoadBalancers

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeLoadBalancerAttributes

      • elasticloadbalancing:DetachLoadBalancerFromSubnets

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeregisterInstancesFromLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:ModifyLoadBalancerAttributes

      • elasticloadbalancing:RegisterInstancesWithLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:SetLoadBalancerPoliciesForBackendServer

      • elasticloadbalancing:AddTags

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateListener

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateTargetGroup

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteListener

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteTargetGroup

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeListeners

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeLoadBalancerPolicies

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeTargetGroups

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeTargetHealth

      • elasticloadbalancing:ModifyListener

      • elasticloadbalancing:ModifyTargetGroup

      • elasticloadbalancing:RegisterTargets

      • elasticloadbalancing:SetLoadBalancerPoliciesOfListener

      • iam:CreateServiceLinkedRole

      • kms:DescribeKey

  10. Configure the bootstrapper.cluster-api-provider-aws.kaas.mirantis.com user created in the previous steps:

    1. Using your AWS Management Console, generate the AWS Access Key ID with Secret Access Key for bootstrapper.cluster-api-provider-aws.kaas.mirantis.com and select the AWS default region name.

      Note

      Other authorization methods, such as usage of AWS_SESSION_TOKEN, are not supported.

    2. Export the AWS bootstrapper.cluster-api-provider-aws.kaas.mirantis.com user credentials that were created in the previous step:

      export KAAS_AWS_ENABLED=true
      export AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=XXXXXXX
      export AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=XXXXXXX
      export AWS_DEFAULT_REGION=us-east-2
      
  11. If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server, in bootstrap.env, add the following environment variables to bootstrap the management and regional cluster using proxy:

    • HTTP_PROXY

    • HTTPS_PROXY

    • NO_PROXY

    • PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH

    Example snippet:

    export HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.example.com:3128
    export HTTPS_PROXY=http://user:pass@proxy.example.com:3128
    export NO_PROXY=172.18.10.0,registry.internal.lan
    export PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH="/home/ubuntu/.mitmproxy/mitmproxy-ca-cert.cer"
    

    The following formats of variables are accepted:

    Proxy configuration data

    Variable

    Format

    HTTP_PROXY
    HTTPS_PROXY
    • http://proxy.example.com:port - for anonymous access

    • http://user:password@proxy.example.com:port - for restricted access

    NO_PROXY

    Comma-separated list of IP addresses or domain names

    PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH Available since 2.20.0 as GA

    Optional. Path to the proxy CA certificate for man-in-the-middle (MITM) proxies. Must be placed on the bootstrap node to be trusted. For details, see Install a CA certificate for a MITM proxy on a bootstrap node.

    Warning

    If you require Internet access to go through a MITM proxy, ensure that the proxy has streaming enabled as described in Enable streaming for MITM.

    Note

    • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, this parameter is generally available for the OpenStack, bare metal, Equinix Metal with private networking, AWS, and vSphere providers

    • For MOSK-based deployments, the feature support is available since MOSK 22.4

    • Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, this parameter is available as TechPreview for the OpenStack and bare metal providers only

    • For Azure and Equinix Metal with public networking, the feature is not supported

    For implementation details, see Proxy and cache support.

    For the NO_PROXY variable, also explicitly add the following addresses:

    • Before Container Cloud 2.20.0:

      NO_PROXY=10.96.0.1,169.254.169.254
      
    • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0:

      NO_PROXY=10.96.0.1,169.254.169.254,ec2.<REGION>.amazonaws.com,elb.<REGION>.amazonaws.com,elasticloadbalancing.<REGION>.amazonaws.com
      

      Replace <REGION> with the required region name. For example, us-east-2.

    For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Requirements for an AWS-based cluster.

  12. Optional. Configure external identity provider for IAM.

  13. Optional, Technology Preview in Container Cloud 2.18.0. Removed in Container Cloud 2.19.0 for compatibility reasons, currently not supported. Enables encryption for the Kubernetes workloads network using the following field to the Cluster object spec:

     spec:
       providerSpec:
         value:
           secureOverlay: true
    

    For more details, see MKE documentation: Kubernetes network encryption.

    • When the option is enabled, Calico networking is configured to use IP-in-IP overlay and BGP routing.

    • When the option is disabled, Calico networking is configured to use VXLAN overlay (no BGP).

  14. Run the bootstrap script:

    ./bootstrap.sh all
    
    • In case of deployment issues, refer to Troubleshooting and inspect logs.

    • If the script fails for an unknown reason:

      1. Run the cleanup script:

        ./bootstrap.sh cleanup
        
      2. Rerun the bootstrap script.

  15. When the bootstrap is complete, collect and save the following management cluster details in a secure location:

    • The kubeconfig file located in the same directory as the bootstrap script. This file contains the admin credentials for the management cluster.

    • The private ssh_key for access to the management cluster nodes that is located in the same directory as the bootstrap script.

      Note

      If the initial version of your Container Cloud management cluster was earlier than 2.6.0, ssh_key is named openstack_tmp and is located at ~/.ssh/.

    • The URL for the Container Cloud web UI.

      To create users with permissions required for accessing the Container Cloud web UI, see Create initial users after a management cluster bootstrap.

    • The StackLight endpoints. For details, see Access StackLight web UIs.

    • The Keycloak URL that the system outputs when the bootstrap completes. The admin password for Keycloak is located in kaas-bootstrap/passwords.yml along with other IAM passwords.

    Note

    The Container Cloud web UI and StackLight endpoints are available through Transport Layer Security (TLS) and communicate with Keycloak to authenticate users. Keycloak is exposed using HTTPS and self-signed TLS certificates that are not trusted by web browsers.

    To use your own TLS certificates for Keycloak, refer to Configure TLS certificates for cluster applications.

    Note

    When the bootstrap is complete, the bootstrap cluster resources are freed up.

  16. Optional. Deploy an additional regional cluster of a different provider type as described in Deploy an additional regional cluster (optional).

Now, you can proceed with operating your management cluster using the Container Cloud web UI and deploying managed clusters as described in Create and operate an AWS-based managed cluster.

Deploy an Azure-based management cluster

This section describes how to bootstrap a Mirantis Container Cloud management cluster that is based on the Microsoft Azure cloud provider.

Workflow overview

The Infrastructure Operator performs the following steps to deploy Mirantis Container Cloud on Azure:

  1. Prepare an Azure environment that meets Requirements for an Azure-based cluster.

  2. Prepare the bootstrap node as described in Prerequisites.

  3. Obtain the Mirantis license file that will be required during the bootstrap.

  4. Prepare the Azure subscription credentials.

  5. Create and configure the deployment configuration files that include the cluster and machines metadata.

  6. Run the bootstrap script for a fully automated installation of the management cluster.

For more details, see Bootstrap a management cluster.

Prerequisites

Before you start with bootstrapping an Azure-based management cluster, complete the following prerequisite steps:

  1. Inspect the Requirements for an Azure-based cluster to understand the potential impact of the Container Cloud deployment on your Azure project.

  2. Configure the bootstrap node:

    1. Log in to any personal computer or VM running Ubuntu 20.04 that you will be using as the bootstrap node.

    2. If you use a newly created VM, run:

      sudo apt-get update
      
    3. Install the current Docker version available for Ubuntu 20.04:

      sudo apt install docker.io
      
    4. Grant your USER access to the Docker daemon:

      sudo usermod -aG docker $USER
      
    5. Log off and log in again to the bootstrap node to apply the changes.

    6. Verify that Docker is configured correctly and has access to Container Cloud CDN. For example:

      docker run --rm alpine sh -c "apk add --no-cache curl; \
      curl https://binary.mirantis.com"
      

      The system output must contain no error records. In case of issues, follow the steps provided in Troubleshooting.

    Note

    If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server for security and audit purposes, configure Docker proxy settings as described in the official Docker documentation.

  3. Proceed to Bootstrap a management cluster.

Bootstrap a management cluster

After you complete the prerequisite steps described in Prerequisites, proceed with bootstrapping your Mirantis Container Cloud management cluster based on the Azure provider.

To bootstrap an Azure-based management cluster:

  1. Log in to the bootstrap node running Ubuntu 20.04 that is configured as described in Prerequisites.

  2. Prepare the bootstrap script:

    1. Download and run the Container Cloud bootstrap script:

      apt install wget
      wget https://binary.mirantis.com/releases/get_container_cloud.sh
      chmod 0755 get_container_cloud.sh
      ./get_container_cloud.sh
      
    2. Change the directory to the kaas-bootstrap folder created by the script.

  3. Obtain your license file that will be required during the bootstrap:

    1. Create a user account at www.mirantis.com.

    2. Log in to your account and download the mirantis.lic license file.

    3. Save the license file as mirantis.lic under the kaas-bootstrap directory on the bootstrap node.

    4. Verify that mirantis.lic contains the exact Container Cloud license previously downloaded from www.mirantis.com by decoding the license JWT token, for example, using jwt.io.

      Example of a valid decoded Container Cloud license data with the mandatory license field:

      {
          "exp": 1652304773,
          "iat": 1636669973,
          "sub": "demo",
          "license": {
              "dev": false,
              "limits": {
                  "clusters": 10,
                  "workers_per_cluster": 10
              },
              "openstack": null
          }
      }
      

      Warning

      The MKE license does not apply to mirantis.lic. For details about MKE license, see MKE documentation.

  4. Set up your Azure environment:

    1. Create an Azure service principal. Skip this step to use an existing Azure service principal.

      1. Create a Microsoft Azure account.

      2. Install Azure CLI.

      3. Log in to the Azure CLI:

        az login
        
      4. List your Azure accounts:

        az account list -o table
        
      5. If more than one account exists, select the account dedicated for Container Cloud:

        az account set -s <subscriptionID>
        
      6. Create an Azure service principal:

        Caution

        The owner role is required for creation of role assignments.

        az ad sp create-for-rbac --role contributor --scopes="/subscriptions/<subscriptionID>"
        

        Example of system response:

        {
           "appId": "0c87aM5a-e172-182b-a91a-a9b8d39ddbcd",
           "displayName": "azure-cli-2021-08-04-15-25-16",
           "name": "1359ac72-5794-494d-b787-1d7309b7f8bc",
           "password": "Q1jB2-7Uz6Cka7xos6vL-Ddb4BQx2vgMl",
           "tenant": "6d498697-7anvd-4172-a7v0-4e5b2e25f280"
        }
        
    2. Change the directory to kaas-bootstrap.

    3. Export the following parameter:

      export KAAS_AZURE_ENABLED=true
      
    4. In templates/azure/azure-config.yaml.template, modify the following parameters using credentials obtained in the previous steps or using credentials of an existing Azure service principal obtained from the subscription owner:

      • spec:subscriptionID is the subscription ID of your Azure account

      • spec:tenantID is the value of "tenant"

      • spec:clientID is the value of "appId"

      • spec:clientSecret:value is the value of "password"

      For example:

      spec:
        subscriptionID: b8bea78f-zf7s-s7vk-s8f0-642a6v7a39c1
        tenantID: 6d498697-7anvd-4172-a7v0-4e5b2e25f280
        clientID: 0c87aM5a-e172-182b-a91a-a9b8d39ddbcd
        clientSecret:
          value: Q1jB2-7Uz6Cka7xos6vL-Ddb4BQx2vgMl
      
    5. In templates/azure/cluster.yaml.template, modify the default configuration of the Azure cluster location. This is an Azure region that your subscription has quota for.

      To obtain the list of available locations, run:

      az account list-locations -o=table
      

      For example:

      providerSpec:
        value:
        ...
          location: southcentralus
      

      Also, modify other parameters as required.

  5. Optional. In templates/azure/machines.yaml.template, modify the default configuration of the Azure virtual machine size and OS disk size.

    Mirantis Container Cloud only supports Azure virtual machine sizes that meet the following minimum requirements:

    1. More than 8 CPU

    2. More than 24 GB RAM

    3. Ephemeral OS drive supported

    4. Temporary storage size is more than 128 GB

    Set the OS disk size parameter to at least 128 GB (default value) and verify that it does not exceed the temporary storage size.

    To obtain the list of all Azure virtual machine sizes available in the selected Azure region:

    az vm list-skus -l southcentralus -o=json
    

    To filter virtual machine sizes by the Container Cloud minimum requirements:

    1. Install jq.

    2. Run the following command:

      az vm list-skus -l eastus -o=json | jq '.[] | {name: .name}+{vCPUs: .capabilities[]? | select(.name == "vCPUs" and (.value | tonumber >= 8))}+{RAM: .capabilities[]? | select(.name == "MemoryGB" and (.value | tonumber >= 16))}+{EphemeralOSDiskSupported: .capabilities[]? | select(.name == "EphemeralOSDiskSupported" and .value == "True")}+{TempStorageSize: .capabilities[]? | select(.name == "CachedDiskBytes" and (.value | tonumber >= 137438953472))}'
      

      The default VM size is Standard_F16s_v2:

      providerSpec:
        value:
        ...
          vmSize: Standard_F16s_v2
          osDisk:
            osType: Linux
            diskSizeGB: 128
      

    Also, modify other parameters as required.

  6. Optional if servers from the Ubuntu NTP pool (*.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org) are accessible from the node where the management cluster is being provisioned. Otherwise, this step is mandatory.

    Configure the regional NTP server parameters to be applied to all machines of regional and managed clusters in the specified region.

    In templates/azure/cluster.yaml.template, add the ntp:servers section with the list of required servers names:

    spec:
      ...
      providerSpec:
        value:
          kaas:
          ...
            regional:
              - helmReleases:
                - name: azure-provider
                  values:
                    config:
                      lcm:
                        ...
                        ntp:
                          servers:
                          - 0.pool.ntp.org
                          ...
                provider: azure
                ...
    
  7. Export the following parameter:

    export KAAS_AZURE_ENABLED=true
    
  8. If you require Internet access to go through a proxy server, in bootstrap.env, add the following environment variables to bootstrap the management and regional cluster using proxy:

    • HTTP_PROXY

    • HTTPS_PROXY

    • NO_PROXY

    Example snippet:

    export HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.example.com:3128
    export HTTPS_PROXY=http://user:pass@proxy.example.com:3128
    export NO_PROXY=172.18.10.0,registry.internal.lan
    

    The following formats of variables are accepted:

    Proxy configuration data

    Variable

    Format

    HTTP_PROXY
    HTTPS_PROXY
    • http://proxy.example.com:port - for anonymous access

    • http://user:password@proxy.example.com:port - for restricted access

    NO_PROXY

    Comma-separated list of IP addresses or domain names

    For implementation details, see Proxy and cache support.

    For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Requirements for an Azure-based cluster.

  9. Optional. Configure external identity provider for IAM.

  10. Run the bootstrap script:

    ./bootstrap.sh all
    
    • In case of deployment issues, refer to Troubleshooting and inspect logs.

    • If the script fails for an unknown reason:

      1. Run the cleanup script:

        ./bootstrap.sh cleanup
        
      2. Rerun the bootstrap script.

  11. When the bootstrap is complete, collect and save the following management cluster details in a secure location:

    • The kubeconfig file located in the same directory as the bootstrap script. This file contains the admin credentials for the management cluster.

    • The private ssh_key for access to the management cluster nodes that is located in the same directory as the bootstrap script.

      Note

      If the initial version of your Container Cloud management cluster was earlier than 2.6.0, ssh_key is named openstack_tmp and is located at ~/.ssh/.

    • The URL for the Container Cloud web UI.

      To create users with permissions required for accessing the Container Cloud web UI, see Create initial users after a management cluster bootstrap.

    • The StackLight endpoints. For details, see Access StackLight web UIs.

    • The Keycloak URL that the system outputs when the bootstrap completes. The admin password for Keycloak is located in kaas-bootstrap/passwords.yml along with other IAM passwords.

    Note

    The Container Cloud web UI and StackLight endpoints are available through Transport Layer Security (TLS) and communicate with Keycloak to authenticate users. Keycloak is exposed using HTTPS and self-signed TLS certificates that are not trusted by web browsers.

    To use your own TLS certificates for Keycloak, refer to Configure TLS certificates for cluster applications.

    Note

    When the bootstrap is complete, the bootstrap cluster resources are freed up.

  12. Optional. Deploy an additional regional cluster of a different provider type or configuration as described in Deploy an additional regional cluster (optional).

Now, you can proceed with operating your management cluster through the Container Cloud web UI and deploying managed clusters as described in Create and operate an Azure-based managed cluster.

Deploy an Equinix Metal based management cluster with public networking

Deprecated since 2.18.0

Caution

Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, the public networking mode for the Equinix Metal based clusters is deprecated for the sake of the private networking mode. Deployments with public networks will become unsupported in one of the following Container Cloud releases.

This section describes how to bootstrap a Mirantis Container Cloud management cluster that is based on the Equinix Metal cloud provider with public networking.

Workflow overview

Caution

Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, the public networking mode for the Equinix Metal based clusters is deprecated for the sake of the private networking mode. Deployments with public networks will become unsupported in one of the following Container Cloud releases.

The Infrastructure Operator performs the following steps to deploy Mirantis Container Cloud on Equinix Metal with public networking:

  1. Prepare an Equinix Metal environment that meets the Requirements for an Equinix Metal based cluster.

  2. Prepare the bootstrap node as described in Prerequisites.

  3. Obtain the Mirantis license file that will be required during the bootstrap.

  4. Configure BGP in the Equinix Metal project.

  5. Verify the capacity of the Equinix Metal facility.

  6. Prepare the Equinix Metal environment credentials.

  7. Create and configure the deployment configuration files that include the cluster and machines metadata.

  8. Run the bootstrap script for a fully automated installation of the management cluster.

For more details, see Bootstrap a management cluster.

Prerequisites

Caution

Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, the public networking mode for the Equinix Metal based clusters is deprecated for the sake of the private networking mode. Deployments with public networks will become unsupported in one of the following Container Cloud releases.

Before you start with bootstrapping the Equinix Metal based management cluster with public networking, complete the following prerequisite steps:

  1. Inspect the Requirements for an Equinix Metal based cluster to understand the potential impact of the Container Cloud deployment on your Equinix Metal project.

  2. Configure the bootstrap node:

    1. Log in to any personal computer or VM running Ubuntu 20.04 that you will be using as the bootstrap node.

    2. If you use a newly created VM, run:

      sudo apt-get update
      
    3. Install the current Docker version available for Ubuntu 20.04:

      sudo apt install docker.io
      
    4. Grant your USER access to the Docker daemon:

      sudo usermod -aG docker $USER
      
    5. Log off and log in again to the bootstrap node to apply the changes.

    6. Verify that Docker is configured correctly and has access to Container Cloud CDN. For example:

      docker run --rm alpine sh -c "apk add --no-cache curl; \
      curl https://binary.mirantis.com"
      

      The system output must contain no error records. In case of issues, follow the steps provided in Troubleshooting.

    Note

    If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server for security and audit purposes, configure Docker proxy settings as described in the official Docker documentation.

  3. Proceed to Equinix Metal project setup.

Equinix Metal project setup

Caution

Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, the public networking mode for the Equinix Metal based clusters is deprecated for the sake of the private networking mode. Deployments with public networks will become unsupported in one of the following Container Cloud releases.

Before deploying an Equinix Metal based Container Cloud cluster with public networking, ensure that local Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is enabled and properly configured for your Equinix Metal project.

To configure BGP in the Equinix Metal project:

  1. Log in to the Equinix Metal console.

  2. In IPs & Networks, select BGP.

  3. In the window that opens:

    1. Click Activate BGP on This Project.

    2. Select local type.

    3. Click Add and wait for the request to finalize.

Now, you can proceed to Verify the capacity of the Equinix Metal facility.

Verify the capacity of the Equinix Metal facility

Caution

Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, the public networking mode for the Equinix Metal based clusters is deprecated for the sake of the private networking mode. Deployments with public networks will become unsupported in one of the following Container Cloud releases.

Before deploying an Equinix Metal based Container Cloud cluster with public networking, ensure that the Equinix Metal project has enough capacity to deploy the required number of machines. Otherwise, the machines will be stuck in the Provisioned state with an error message about no available servers of particular type in your facility.

To verify the capacity of the Equinix Metal facility:

  1. Install the Equinix Metal CLI.

  2. Obtain USER_API_TOKEN for the Equinix Metal authentication:

    1. Log in to the Equinix Metal console.

    2. Capture the existing API key with the Read/Write permissions or create a new one:

      1. In Personal Settings > Personal API Keys, click Add New Key.

      2. Fill in the Description and select the Read/Write permissions.

      3. Click Add Key.

  3. Configure the Equinix Metal authentication by exporting the METAL_AUTH_TOKEN environment variable. Replace USER_API_TOKEN with your USER_API_TOKEN:

    export METAL_AUTH_TOKEN=USER_API_TOKEN
    

    For more details, see Equinix Metal authentication.

  4. Verify the capacity of the Equinix Metal facility selected for the management cluster bootstrap:

    metal capacity check -f $EQUINIX_FACILITY -P $EQUINIX_MACHINE_TYPE -q $MACHINES_AMOUNT
    

    Note

    Depending on your metal CLI version, naming of flags may vary. To verify naming of flags available for your metal CLI version, run metal capacity check --help.

    In the command above, replace $EQUINIX_FACILITY, $EQUINIX_MACHINE_TYPE and $MACHINES_AMOUNT with corresponding values of your cluster.

    For example, to verify that Equinix Metal can create 6 machines of the c3.small.x86 type in the am6 facility, run:

    metal capacity check -f am6 -P c3.small.x86 -q 6
    

    In the system response, verify that the AVAILABILITY section has the true value.

    Example of a positive system response:

    +----------+--------------+----------+--------------+
    | FACILITY |     PLAN     | QUANTITY | AVAILABILITY |
    +----------+--------------+----------+--------------+
    | am6      | c3.small.x86 | 6        | true         |
    +----------+--------------+----------+--------------+
    

Proceed to Bootstrap a management cluster.

Bootstrap a management cluster

Caution

Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, the public networking mode for the Equinix Metal based clusters is deprecated for the sake of the private networking mode. Deployments with public networks will become unsupported in one of the following Container Cloud releases.

After you complete the prerequisite steps described in Prerequisites, proceed with bootstrapping your Mirantis Container Cloud management cluster based on the Equinix Metal provider with public networking.

To bootstrap an Equinix Metal based management cluster with public networking:

  1. Log in to the bootstrap node running Ubuntu 20.04 that is configured as described in Prerequisites.

  2. Prepare the bootstrap script:

    1. Download and run the Container Cloud bootstrap script:

      apt install wget
      wget https://binary.mirantis.com/releases/get_container_cloud.sh
      chmod 0755 get_container_cloud.sh
      ./get_container_cloud.sh
      
    2. Change the directory to the kaas-bootstrap folder created by the script.

  3. Obtain your license file that will be required during the bootstrap:

    1. Create a user account at www.mirantis.com.

    2. Log in to your account and download the mirantis.lic license file.

    3. Save the license file as mirantis.lic under the kaas-bootstrap directory on the bootstrap node.

    4. Verify that mirantis.lic contains the exact Container Cloud license previously downloaded from www.mirantis.com by decoding the license JWT token, for example, using jwt.io.

      Example of a valid decoded Container Cloud license data with the mandatory license field:

      {
          "exp": 1652304773,
          "iat": 1636669973,
          "sub": "demo",
          "license": {
              "dev": false,
              "limits": {
                  "clusters": 10,
                  "workers_per_cluster": 10
              },
              "openstack": null
          }
      }
      

      Warning

      The MKE license does not apply to mirantis.lic. For details about MKE license, see MKE documentation.

  4. Using the Equinix Metal console, obtain the project ID and the user-level API Key of the Equinix Metal project to be used for the Container Cloud deployment:

    1. Log in to the Equinix Metal console.

    2. Select the project that you want to use for the Container Cloud deployment.

    3. In Project Settings > General, capture your Project ID.

    4. In Profile Settings > Personal API Keys, capture the existing user-level API Key or create a new one:

      1. In Profile Settings > Personal API Keys, click Add New Key.

      2. Fill in the Description and select the Read/Write permissions.

      3. Click Add Key.

  5. Prepare the Equinix Metal configuration:

    1. Change the directory to kaas-bootstrap.

    2. In templates/equinix/equinix-config.yaml.template, modify spec:projectID and spec:apiToken:value using the values obtained in the previous steps. For example:

      spec:
        projectID: g98sd6f8-dc7s-8273-v8s7-d9v7395nd91
        apiToken:
          value: Bi3m9c7qjYBD3UgsnSCSsqs2bYkbK
      
    3. In templates/equinix/cluster.yaml.template, modify the default configuration of the Equinix Metal facility depending on the previously prepared capacity settings:

      providerSpec:
        value:
        ...
          facility: am6
      

      Also, modify other parameters as required.

    4. Optional. In templates/equinix/machines.yaml.template, modify the default configuration of the Equinix Metal machine type. The minimal required type is c3.small.x86.

      providerSpec:
        value:
        ...
          machineType: c3.small.x86
      

      Also, modify other parameters as required.

  6. Optional if servers from the Ubuntu NTP pool (*.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org) are accessible from the node where the management cluster is being provisioned. Otherwise, this step is mandatory.

    Configure the regional NTP server parameters to be applied to all machines of regional and managed clusters in the specified region.

    In templates/equinix/cluster.yaml.template, add the ntp:servers section with the list of required servers names:

    spec:
      ...
      providerSpec:
        value:
          kaas:
          ...
            regional:
              - helmReleases:
                - name: equinix-provider
                  values:
                    config:
                      lcm:
                        ...
                        ntp:
                          servers:
                          - 0.pool.ntp.org
                          ...
                provider: equinixmetal
                ...
    
  7. Export the following parameter:

    export KAAS_EQUINIX_ENABLED=true
    
  8. If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server, in bootstrap.env, add the following environment variables to bootstrap the management and regional cluster using proxy:

    • HTTP_PROXY

    • HTTPS_PROXY

    • NO_PROXY

    Example snippet:

    export HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.example.com:3128
    export HTTPS_PROXY=http://user:pass@proxy.example.com:3128
    export NO_PROXY=172.18.10.0,registry.internal.lan
    

    The following formats of variables are accepted:

    Proxy configuration data

    Variable

    Format

    HTTP_PROXY
    HTTPS_PROXY
    • http://proxy.example.com:port - for anonymous access

    • http://user:password@proxy.example.com:port - for restricted access

    NO_PROXY

    Comma-separated list of IP addresses or domain names

    For implementation details, see Proxy and cache support.

    For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Requirements for an Equinix Metal based cluster.

  9. Optional. Configure external identity provider for IAM.

  10. Optional, Technology Preview in Container Cloud 2.18.0. Removed in Container Cloud 2.19.0 for compatibility reasons, currently not supported. Enables encryption for the Kubernetes workloads network using the following field to the Cluster object spec:

     spec:
       providerSpec:
         value:
           secureOverlay: true
    

    For more details, see MKE documentation: Kubernetes network encryption.

    • When the option is enabled, Calico networking is configured to use IP-in-IP overlay and BGP routing.

    • When the option is disabled, Calico networking is configured to use VXLAN overlay (no BGP).

  11. Re-verify that the selected Equinix Metal facility for the management cluster bootstrap is still available and has enough capacity:

    metal capacity check -f $EQUINIX_FACILITY -P $EQUINIX_MACHINE_TYPE -q $MACHINES_AMOUNT
    

    In the system response, if the value in the AVAILABILITY section has changed from true to false, find an available facility and update the previously configured facility field in cluster.yaml.template.

    For details about the verification procedure, see Verify the capacity of the Equinix Metal facility.

  12. Run the bootstrap script:

    ./bootstrap.sh all
    
    • In case of deployment issues, refer to Troubleshooting and inspect logs.

    • If the script fails for an unknown reason:

      1. Run the cleanup script:

        ./bootstrap.sh cleanup
        
      2. Rerun the bootstrap script.

  13. When the bootstrap is complete, collect and save the following management cluster details in a secure location:

    • The kubeconfig file located in the same directory as the bootstrap script. This file contains the admin credentials for the management cluster.

    • The private ssh_key for access to the management cluster nodes that is located in the same directory as the bootstrap script.

      Note

      If the initial version of your Container Cloud management cluster was earlier than 2.6.0, ssh_key is named openstack_tmp and is located at ~/.ssh/.

    • The URL for the Container Cloud web UI.

      To create users with permissions required for accessing the Container Cloud web UI, see Create initial users after a management cluster bootstrap.

    • The StackLight endpoints. For details, see Access StackLight web UIs.

    • The Keycloak URL that the system outputs when the bootstrap completes. The admin password for Keycloak is located in kaas-bootstrap/passwords.yml along with other IAM passwords.

    Note

    The Container Cloud web UI and StackLight endpoints are available through Transport Layer Security (TLS) and communicate with Keycloak to authenticate users. Keycloak is exposed using HTTPS and self-signed TLS certificates that are not trusted by web browsers.

    To use your own TLS certificates for Keycloak, refer to Configure TLS certificates for cluster applications.

    Note

    When the bootstrap is complete, the bootstrap cluster resources are freed up.

  14. Optional. Deploy an additional regional cluster of a different provider type or configuration as described in Deploy an additional regional cluster (optional).

Now, you can proceed with operating your management cluster using the Container Cloud web UI and deploying managed clusters as described in Create and operate an Equinix Metal based managed cluster with public networking.

Deploy an Equinix Metal based management cluster with private networking

This section describes how to bootstrap a Mirantis Container Cloud management cluster that is based on the Equinix Metal cloud provider with private networking.

Workflow overview

The Infrastructure Operator performs the following steps to deploy Mirantis Container Cloud on Equinix Metal with private networking:

  1. Prepare an Equinix Metal environment that meets the Requirements for an Equinix Metal based cluster.

  2. Prepare the required infrastructure in Equinix Metal following Infrastructure prerequisites

  3. Prepare the bootstrap node as described in Prerequisites.

  4. Obtain the Mirantis license file that will be required during the bootstrap.

  5. Verify the capacity of the Equinix Metal facility.

  6. Prepare the Equinix Metal environment credentials.

  7. Create and configure the deployment configuration files that include the cluster and machines metadata.

  8. Run the bootstrap script for a fully automated installation of the management cluster.

For more details, see Bootstrap a management cluster.

Prerequisites

Before you start with bootstrapping the Equinix Metal based management or regional cluster with private networking, complete the following prerequisite steps:

  1. Inspect the Requirements for an Equinix Metal based cluster to understand the potential impact of the Container Cloud deployment on your Equinix Metal project.

  2. Deploy all necessary infrastructure (VLANs, routers, proxy server, and so on) as described in Infrastructure prerequisites.

  3. Configure the bootstrap node:

    1. Log in to any personal computer or VM running Ubuntu 20.04 that you will be using as the bootstrap node.

    2. If you use a newly created VM, run:

      sudo apt-get update
      
    3. Install the current Docker version available for Ubuntu 20.04:

      sudo apt install docker.io
      
    4. Grant your USER access to the Docker daemon:

      sudo usermod -aG docker $USER
      
    5. Log off and log in again to the bootstrap node to apply the changes.

    6. Verify that Docker is configured correctly and has access to Container Cloud CDN. For example:

      docker run --rm alpine sh -c "apk add --no-cache curl; \
      curl https://binary.mirantis.com"
      

      The system output must contain no error records. In case of issues, follow the steps provided in Troubleshooting.

    Note

    If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server for security and audit purposes, configure Docker proxy settings as described in the official Docker documentation.

  4. Proceed to Verify the capacity of the Equinix Metal facility.

Verify the capacity of the Equinix Metal facility

Before deploying an Equinix Metal based Container Cloud cluster with private networking, ensure that the Equinix Metal project has enough capacity to deploy the required number of machines. Otherwise, the machines will be stuck in the Provisioned state with an error message about no available servers of particular type in your facility.

To verify the capacity of the Equinix Metal facility:

Warning

Mirantis highly recommends using the c3.small.x86 machine type for the control plane machines deployed with private network to prevent hardware issues with incorrect BIOS boot order.

  1. Install the Equinix Metal CLI.

  2. Obtain USER_API_TOKEN for the Equinix Metal authentication:

    1. Log in to the Equinix Metal console.

    2. Capture the existing API key with the Read/Write permissions or create a new one:

      1. In Personal Settings > Personal API Keys, click Add New Key.

      2. Fill in the Description and select the Read/Write permissions.

      3. Click Add Key.

  3. Configure the Equinix Metal authentication by exporting the METAL_AUTH_TOKEN environment variable. Replace USER_API_TOKEN with your USER_API_TOKEN:

    export METAL_AUTH_TOKEN=USER_API_TOKEN
    

    For more details, see Equinix Metal authentication.

  4. Verify the capacity of the Equinix Metal facility selected for the management cluster bootstrap:

    metal capacity check -f $EQUINIX_FACILITY -P $EQUINIX_MACHINE_TYPE -q $MACHINES_AMOUNT
    

    Note

    Depending on your metal CLI version, naming of flags may vary. To verify naming of flags available for your metal CLI version, run metal capacity check --help.

    In the command above, replace $EQUINIX_FACILITY, $EQUINIX_MACHINE_TYPE and $MACHINES_AMOUNT with corresponding values of your cluster.

    For example, to verify that Equinix Metal can create 6 machines of the c3.small.x86 type in the am6 facility, run:

    metal capacity check -f am6 -P c3.small.x86 -q 6
    

    In the system response, verify that the AVAILABILITY section has the true value.

    Example of a positive system response:

    +----------+--------------+----------+--------------+
    | FACILITY |     PLAN     | QUANTITY | AVAILABILITY |
    +----------+--------------+----------+--------------+
    | am6      | c3.small.x86 | 6        | true         |
    +----------+--------------+----------+--------------+
    

Proceed to Bootstrap a management cluster.

Bootstrap a management cluster

After you complete the prerequisite steps described in Prerequisites, proceed with bootstrapping your Mirantis Container Cloud management cluster based on the Equinix Metal provider with private networking.

To bootstrap an Equinix Metal based management cluster with private networking:

  1. Log in to the bootstrap node running Ubuntu 20.04 that is configured as described in Prerequisites.

  2. Prepare the bootstrap script:

    1. Download and run the Container Cloud bootstrap script:

      apt install wget
      wget https://binary.mirantis.com/releases/get_container_cloud.sh
      chmod 0755 get_container_cloud.sh
      ./get_container_cloud.sh
      
    2. Change the directory to the kaas-bootstrap folder created by the script.

  3. Obtain your license file that will be required during the bootstrap:

    1. Create a user account at www.mirantis.com.

    2. Log in to your account and download the mirantis.lic license file.

    3. Save the license file as mirantis.lic under the kaas-bootstrap directory on the bootstrap node.

    4. Verify that mirantis.lic contains the exact Container Cloud license previously downloaded from www.mirantis.com by decoding the license JWT token, for example, using jwt.io.

      Example of a valid decoded Container Cloud license data with the mandatory license field:

      {
          "exp": 1652304773,
          "iat": 1636669973,
          "sub": "demo",
          "license": {
              "dev": false,
              "limits": {
                  "clusters": 10,
                  "workers_per_cluster": 10
              },
              "openstack": null
          }
      }
      

      Warning

      The MKE license does not apply to mirantis.lic. For details about MKE license, see MKE documentation.

  4. Using the Equinix Metal console, obtain the project ID and the user-level API Key of the Equinix Metal project to be used for the Container Cloud deployment:

    1. Log in to the Equinix Metal console.

    2. Select the project that you want to use for the Container Cloud deployment.

    3. In Project Settings > General, capture your Project ID.

    4. In Profile Settings > Personal API Keys, capture the existing user-level API Key or create a new one:

      1. In Profile Settings > Personal API Keys, click Add New Key.

      2. Fill in the Description and select the Read/Write permissions.

      3. Click Add Key.

  5. Prepare the Equinix Metal configuration:

    1. Change the directory to kaas-bootstrap.

    2. In templates/equinixmetalv2/equinix-config.yaml.template, modify spec:projectID and spec:apiToken:value using the values obtained in the previous steps. For example:

      spec:
        projectID: g98sd6f8-dc7s-8273-v8s7-d9v7395nd91
        apiToken:
          value: Bi3m9c7qjYBD3UgsnSCSsqs2bYkbK
      
    3. In templates/equinixmetalv2/cluster.yaml.template:

      • Modify the default configuration of the Equinix Metal facility depending on the previously prepared capacity settings as described in Prerequisites:

        providerSpec:
          value:
            # ...
            facility: am6
        
      • Add projectSSHKeys that is the list of the Equinix Metal project SSH key names to be attached to cluster machines. These keys are required for access to the Equinix Metal out-of-band console Serial Over SSH (SOS) to debug provisioning failures. We recommend adding at least one project SSH key per cluster.

        Example of the project SSH keys configuration:

        providerSpec:
          value:
            # ...
            projectSSHKeys:
            - <projectSSHKeyName>
        

        To create an SSH key in an Equinix Metal project:

        1. Log in to the Equinix Metal console.

        2. Select the project that you want to use for the Container Cloud deployment.

        3. In the Project Settings tab, select Project SSH Keys and click Add New Key.

        4. Enter the Key Name and Public Key values and click Add.

      • Modify network parameters as required by your infrastructure:

        providerSpec:
          value:
            # ...
            network:
              vlanId: SET_EQUINIX_VLAN_ID
              loadBalancerHost: SET_LB_HOST
              metallbRanges:
                - SET_EQUINIX_METALLB_RANGES
              cidr: SET_EQUINIX_NETWORK_CIDR
              gateway: SET_EQUINIX_NETWORK_GATEWAY
              dhcpRanges:
                - SET_EQUINIX_NETWORK_DHCP_RANGES
              includeRanges:
                - SET_EQUINIX_CIDR_INCLUDE_RANGES
              excludeRanges:
                - SET_EQUINIX_CIDR_EXCLUDE_RANGES
              nameservers:
                - SET_EQUINIX_NETWORK_NAMESERVERS
        

        Parameter

        Description

        vlanId

        ID of the VLAN created in the corresponding Equinix Metal Metro that the seed node and cluster nodes should be attached to.

        loadBalancerHost

        IP address to use for the MKE and Kubernetes API endpoints of the cluster.

        metallbRanges

        List of IP ranges in the 192.168.0.129-192.168.0.200 format to use for Kubernetes LoadBalancer services. For example, on a management cluster, these services include the Container Cloud web UI and Keycloak. This list should include at least 12 addresses for a management cluster and 5 for managed clusters.

        cidr

        Network address in CIDR notation. For example, 192.168.0.0/24.

        gateway

        IP address of a gateway attached to this VLAN that provides the necessary external connectivity.

        dhcpRanges

        List of IP ranges in the 192.168.0.10-192.168.0.50 format. IP addresses from these ranges will be allocated to nodes that boot from DHCP during the provisioning process. Should include at least one address for each machine in the cluster.

        includeRanges

        List of IP ranges in the 192.168.0.51-192.168.0.128 format. IP addresses from these ranges will be allocated as permanent addresses of machines in this cluster. Should include at least one address for each machine in the cluster.

        excludeRanges

        Optional. List of IP ranges in the 192.168.0.51-192.168.0.128 format. IP addresses from these ranges will not be allocated as permanent addresses of machines in this cluster.

        nameservers

        List of IP addresses of DNS servers that should be configured on machines. These servers must be accessible through the gateway from the provided VLAN. Required unless a proxy server is used.

    4. Add the following parameters to the bootstrap.env file:

      Parameter

      Description

      KAAS_BM_PXE_BRIDGE

      Name of the bridge that will be used to provide PXE services to provision machines during bootstrap.

      KAAS_BM_PXE_IP

      IP address that will be used for PXE services. Will be assigned to the KAAS_BM_PXE_BRIDGE bridge. Must be part of the cidr parameter.

      KAAS_BM_PXE_MASK

      Number of bits in the network address KAAS_BM_PXE_IP. Must match the CIDR suffix in the cidr parameter.

      BOOTSTRAP_METALLB_ADDRESS_POOL

      IP range in the 192.168.0.129-192.168.0.200 format that will be used for Kubernetes LoadBalancer services in the bootstrap cluster.

      Example of this section in bootstrap.env:

      KAAS_BM_PXE_BRIDGE=br0
      KAAS_BM_PXE_IP=192.168.0.5
      KAAS_BM_PXE_MASK=24
      BOOTSTRAP_METALLB_ADDRESS_POOL=192.168.0.129-192.168.0.200
      
    5. Optional. In templates/equinixmetalv2/machines.yaml.template, modify the default configuration of the Equinix Metal machine type. The minimal required type is c3.small.x86.

      Warning

      Mirantis highly recommends using the c3.small.x86 machine type for the control plane machines deployed with private network to prevent hardware issues with incorrect BIOS boot order.

      providerSpec:
        value:
          # ...
          machineType: c3.small.x86
      

      Also, modify other parameters as required.

  6. Optional if servers from the Ubuntu NTP pool (*.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org) are accessible from the VLAN where the management cluster is being provisioned. Otherwise, this step is mandatory.

    Configure the regional NTP server parameters to be applied to all machines of regional and managed clusters in the specified region.

    In templates/equinixmetalv2/cluster.yaml.template, add the ntp:servers section with the list of required servers names:

    spec:
      ...
      providerSpec:
        value:
          kaas:
          ...
            regional:
              - helmReleases:
                - name: equinix-provider
                  values:
                    config:
                      lcm:
                        ...
                        ntp:
                          servers:
                          - 192.168.0.1
                          ...
                provider: equinixmetalv2
                ...
    
  7. Export the following parameter:

    export KAAS_EQUINIXMETALV2_ENABLED=true
    
  8. If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server, in bootstrap.env, add the following environment variables to bootstrap the management and regional cluster using proxy:

    • HTTP_PROXY

    • HTTPS_PROXY

    • NO_PROXY

    • PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH

    Example snippet:

    export HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.example.com:3128
    export HTTPS_PROXY=http://user:pass@proxy.example.com:3128
    export NO_PROXY=172.18.10.0,registry.internal.lan
    export PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH="/home/ubuntu/.mitmproxy/mitmproxy-ca-cert.cer"
    

    The following formats of variables are accepted:

    Proxy configuration data

    Variable

    Format

    HTTP_PROXY
    HTTPS_PROXY
    • http://proxy.example.com:port - for anonymous access

    • http://user:password@proxy.example.com:port - for restricted access

    NO_PROXY

    Comma-separated list of IP addresses or domain names

    PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH Available since 2.20.0 as GA

    Optional. Path to the proxy CA certificate for man-in-the-middle (MITM) proxies. Must be placed on the bootstrap node to be trusted. For details, see Install a CA certificate for a MITM proxy on a bootstrap node.

    Warning

    If you require Internet access to go through a MITM proxy, ensure that the proxy has streaming enabled as described in Enable streaming for MITM.

    Note

    • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, this parameter is generally available for the OpenStack, bare metal, Equinix Metal with private networking, AWS, and vSphere providers

    • For MOSK-based deployments, the feature support is available since MOSK 22.4

    • Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, this parameter is available as TechPreview for the OpenStack and bare metal providers only

    • For Azure and Equinix Metal with public networking, the feature is not supported

    For implementation details, see Proxy and cache support.

    For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Requirements for an Equinix Metal based cluster.

  9. Optional. Configure external identity provider for IAM.

  10. Optional, Technology Preview in Container Cloud 2.18.0. Removed in Container Cloud 2.19.0 for compatibility reasons, currently not supported. Enables encryption for the Kubernetes workloads network using the following field to the Cluster object spec:

     spec:
       providerSpec:
         value:
           secureOverlay: true
    

    For more details, see MKE documentation: Kubernetes network encryption.

    • When the option is enabled, Calico networking is configured to use IP-in-IP overlay and BGP routing.

    • When the option is disabled, Calico networking is configured to use VXLAN overlay (no BGP).

  11. Re-verify that the selected Equinix Metal facility for the management cluster bootstrap is still available and has enough capacity:

    metal capacity check -f $EQUINIX_FACILITY -P $EQUINIX_MACHINE_TYPE -q $MACHINES_AMOUNT
    

    In the system response, if the value in the AVAILABILITY section has changed from true to false, find an available facility and update the previously configured facility field in cluster.yaml.template.

    For details about the verification procedure, see Verify the capacity of the Equinix Metal facility.

  12. Run the bootstrap script:

    ./bootstrap.sh all
    
    • In case of deployment issues, refer to Troubleshooting and inspect logs.

    • If the script fails for an unknown reason:

      1. Run the cleanup script:

        ./bootstrap.sh cleanup
        
      2. Rerun the bootstrap script.

  13. When the bootstrap is complete, collect and save the following management cluster details in a secure location:

    • The kubeconfig file located in the same directory as the bootstrap script. This file contains the admin credentials for the management cluster.

    • The private ssh_key for access to the management cluster nodes that is located in the same directory as the bootstrap script.

      Note

      If the initial version of your Container Cloud management cluster was earlier than 2.6.0, ssh_key is named openstack_tmp and is located at ~/.ssh/.

    • The URL for the Container Cloud web UI.

      To create users with permissions required for accessing the Container Cloud web UI, see Create initial users after a management cluster bootstrap.

    • The StackLight endpoints. For details, see Access StackLight web UIs.

    • The Keycloak URL that the system outputs when the bootstrap completes. The admin password for Keycloak is located in kaas-bootstrap/passwords.yml along with other IAM passwords.

    Note

    The Container Cloud web UI and StackLight endpoints are available through Transport Layer Security (TLS) and communicate with Keycloak to authenticate users. Keycloak is exposed using HTTPS and self-signed TLS certificates that are not trusted by web browsers.

    To use your own TLS certificates for Keycloak, refer to Configure TLS certificates for cluster applications.

    Note

    When the bootstrap is complete, the bootstrap cluster resources are freed up.

  14. Establish connection to the cluster private network:

    1. Install sshuttle.

    2. Obtain the cluster CIDR from the cluster specification:

      kubectl --kubeconfig <clusterKubeconfig> \
      get cluster <clusterName> -n <clusterProjectName> \
      -o jsonpath='{.spec.providerSpec.value.network.cidr}'
      
    3. Obtain the public IP address of the related Equinix Metal router:

      1. Log in to the Equinix Metal console of the related project.

      2. In the list of servers, capture the IP address of the related Equinix Metal router server listed in the IPV4 ADDRESS column.

    4. Establish connection to the cluster private network from your local machine:

      sshuttle <clusterCIDR> -r ubuntu@<routerPublicIP> --ssh-cmd 'ssh -i <pathToRouterSSHKey>'
      

    Now, you can access the Keycloak, StackLight, and Container Cloud web UIs.

  15. Optional. Deploy an additional regional cluster of a different provider type or configuration as described in Deploy an additional regional cluster (optional).

Now, you can proceed with operating your management cluster using the Container Cloud web UI and deploying managed clusters as described in Create and operate an Equinix Metal based managed cluster with private networking.

Deploy a VMware vSphere-based management cluster

This section describes how to bootstrap a VMware vSphere-based Mirantis Container Cloud management cluster.

Note

You can deploy vSphere-based clusters on CentOS. Support of this operating system is available as Technology Preview. Use it for testing and evaluation purposes only.

Deployment of a Container Cloud cluster that is based on different operating systems, such as RHEL and CentOS or CentOS and Ubuntu, is not supported.

Workflow overview

Perform the following steps to install Mirantis Container Cloud on a VMware vSphere-based environment:

  1. Prepare a vSphere environment that meets the Requirements for a VMware vSphere-based cluster.

  2. Determine vSphere resources required for the deployment as described in Deployment resources requirements.

  3. Prepare the bootstrap node as described in Prerequisites.

  4. Obtain the Mirantis license file to use during the bootstrap.

  5. Set up the VMware accounts for deployment as described in VMware deployment users.

  6. Create and configure the deployment configuration files that include the cluster and machines metadata as described in Bootstrap a management cluster.

  7. Prepare the OVF template for the management cluster nodes using OVF template requirements.

  8. Run the bootstrap script for the fully automated installation of the management cluster.

For more details, see Bootstrap a management cluster.

Deployment resources requirements

The VMware vSphere provider of Mirantis Container Cloud requires the following resources to successfully create virtual machines for Container Cloud clusters:

  • Data center

    All resources below must be related to one data center.

  • Cluster

    All virtual machines must run on the hosts of one cluster.

  • Virtual Network or Distributed Port Group

    Network for virtual machines. For details, see VMware vSphere network objects and IPAM recommendations.

  • Datastore

    Storage for virtual machines disks and Kubernetes volumes.

  • Folder

    Placement of virtual machines.

  • Resource pool

    Pool of CPU and memory resources for virtual machines.

You must provide the data center and cluster resources by name. You can provide other resources by:

  • Name

    Resource name must be unique in the data center and cluster. Otherwise, the vSphere provider detects multiple resources with same name and cannot determine which one to use.

  • Full path (recommended)

    Full path to a resource depends on its type. For example:

    • Network

      /<data_center>/network/<network_name>

    • Resource pool

      /<data_center>/host/<cluster>/Resources/<resource pool_name>

    • Folder

      /<data_center>/vm/<folder1>/<folder2>/.../<folder_name> or /<data_center>/vm/<folder_name>

    • Datastore

      /<data_center>/datastore/<datastore_name>

You can determine the proper resource name using the vSphere UI.

To obtain the full path to vSphere resources:

  1. Download the latest version of GOVC utility depending on your operating system and unpack the govc binary into PATH on your machine.

  2. Set the environment variables to access your vSphere cluster. For example:

    export GOVC_USERNAME=user
    export GOVC_PASSWORD=password
    export GOVC_URL=https://vcenter.example.com
    
  3. List the data center root using the govc ls command. Example output:

    /<data_center>/vm
    /<data_center>/network
    /<data_center>/host
    /<data_center>/datastore
    
  4. Obtain the full path to resources by name for:

    1. Network or Distributed Port Group (Distributed Virtual Port Group):

      govc find /<data_center> -type n -name <network_name>
      
    2. Datastore:

      govc find /<data_center> -type s -name <datastore_name>
      
    3. Folder:

      govc find /<data_center> -type f -name <folder_name>
      
    4. Resource pool:

      govc find /<data_center> -type p -name <resource_pool_name>
      
  5. Verify the resource type by full path:

    govc object.collect -json -o "<full_path_to_resource>" | jq .Self.Type
    
Prerequisites

Before bootstrapping a VMware vSphere-based management cluster, complete the following prerequisite steps:

  1. Verify that your planned cloud configuration meets the reference hardware bill of material and software requirements as described in Requirements for a VMware vSphere-based cluster.

  2. Verify that your planned cloud configuration meets the deployment resources requirements.

  3. Configure Ubuntu or RHEL on the bootstrap node:

    • For Ubuntu:

      1. Log in to any personal computer or VM running Ubuntu 20.04 that you will be using as the bootstrap node.

      2. If you use a newly created VM, run:

        sudo apt-get update
        
      3. Install the current Docker version available for Ubuntu 20.04:

        sudo apt install docker.io
        
      4. Grant your USER access to the Docker daemon:

        sudo usermod -aG docker $USER
        
      5. Log off and log in again to the bootstrap node to apply the changes.

      6. Verify that Docker is configured correctly and has access to Container Cloud CDN. For example:

        docker run --rm alpine sh -c "apk add --no-cache curl; \
        curl https://binary.mirantis.com"
        

        The system output must contain no error records. In case of issues, follow the steps provided in Troubleshooting.

    • For RHEL:

      1. Log in to a VM running RHEL 7.9 or 8.4 TechPreview that you will be using as a bootstrap node.

      2. If you do not use RedHat Satellite server locally in your infrastructure and require all Internet access to go through a proxy server, including access to RedHat customer portal, configure proxy parameters for subscription-manager using the example below:

        subscription-manager config \
            --server.proxy_scheme=$SCHEME \
            --server.proxy_hostname=$HOST \
            --server.proxy_port=$PORT \
            --server.proxy_user=$USER \
            --server.proxy_password=$PASS \
            --server.no_proxy=$NO_PROXY
        

        Caution

        In MITM proxy deployments, RHEL machines registration using the Red Hat portal fails due to the known issue 26070. Therefore, use the internal Red Hat Satellite server that a VM can access directly without a MITM proxy.

      3. Attach the RHEL subscription using subscription-manager.

      4. Install the following packages:

        sudo yum install yum-utils wget vim -y
        
      5. For RHEL 7.9, verify that the extras repository is enabled:

        sudo yum-config-manager --enable rhel-7-server-extras-rpms
        
      6. Add the Docker mirror according to the operating system major version (7 for 7.9 and 8 for 8.4 TechPreview). Provide the proxy URL, if required, or set to _none_.

        sudo cat <<EOF > /etc/yum.repos.d/docker-ee.repo
        [docker-ee]
        name=Docker EE
        gpgcheck=0
        enabled=1
        priority=1
        baseurl=https://repos.mirantis.com/rhel/RHEL_MAJOR_VERSION/x86_64/stable-20.10/
        proxy=PROXY
        EOF
        
      7. Install and configure Docker:

        sudo yum install docker-ee -y
        sudo systemctl start docker
        sudo chmod 666 /var/run/docker.sock
        
      8. Verify that Docker is configured correctly and has access to Container Cloud CDN. For example:

        docker run --rm alpine sh -c "apk add --no-cache curl; \
        curl https://binary.mirantis.com"
        

        The system output must contain no error records. In case of issues, follow the steps provided in Troubleshooting.

        Note

        If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server for security and audit purposes, configure Docker proxy settings as described in the official Docker documentation.

  4. Prepare the VMware deployment user setup and permissions.

Prepare the VMware deployment user setup and permissions

To deploy Mirantis Container Cloud on a VMware vSphere-based environment, prepare the following VMware accounts:

  1. Log in to the vCenter Server Web Console.

  2. Create the cluster-api user with the following privileges:

    Note

    Container Cloud uses two separate vSphere accounts for:

    • Cluster API related operations, such as create or delete VMs, and for preparation of the OVF template using Packer

    • Storage operations, such as dynamic PVC provisioning

    You can also create one user that has all privileges sets mentioned above.

    Privilege

    Permission

    Content library

    • Download files

    • Read storage

    • Sync library item

    Datastore

    • Allocate space

    • Browse datastore

    • Low-level file operations

    • Update virtual machine metadata

    Distributed switch

    • Host operation

    • IPFIX operation

    • Modify

    • Network I/O control operation

    • Policy operation

    • Port configuration operation

    • Port setting operation

    • VSPAN operation

    Folder

    • Create folder

    • Rename folder

    Global

    Cancel task

    Host local operations

    • Create virtual machine

    • Delete virtual machine

    • Reconfigure virtual machine

    Network

    Assign network

    Resource

    Assign virtual machine to resource pool

    Scheduled task

    • Create tasks

    • Modify task

    • Remove task

    • Run task

    Sessions

    • Validate session

    • View and stop sessions

    Storage views

    View

    Tasks

    • Create task

    • Update task

    Virtual machine permissions

    Privilege

    Permission

    Change configuration

    • Acquire disk lease

    • Add existing disk

    • Add new disk

    • Add or remove device

    • Advanced configuration

    • Change CPU count

    • Change Memory

    • Change Settings

    • Change Swapfile placement

    • Change resource

    • Configure Host USB device

    • Configure Raw device

    • Configure managedBy

    • Display connection settings

    • Extend virtual disk

    • Modify device settings

    • Query Fault Tolerance compatibility

    • Query unowned files

    • Reload from path

    • Remove disk

    • Rename

    • Reset guest information

    • Set annotation

    • Toggle disk change tracking

    • Toggle fork parent

    • Upgrade virtual machine compatibility

    Interaction

    • Configure CD media

    • Configure floppy media

    • Console interaction

    • Device connection

    • Inject USB HID scan codes

    • Power off

    • Power on

    • Reset

    • Suspend

    Inventory

    • Create from existing

    • Create new

    • Move

    • Register

    • Remove

    • Unregister

    Provisioning

    • Allow disk access

    • Allow file access

    • Allow read-only disk access

    • Allow virtual machine download

    • Allow virtual machine files upload

    • Clone template

    • Clone virtual machine

    • Create template from virtual machine

    • Customize guest

    • Deploy template

    • Mark as template

    • Mark as virtual machine

    • Modify customization specification

    • Promote disks

    • Read customization specifications

    Snapshot management

    • Create snapshot

    • Remove snapshot

    • Rename snapshot

    • Revert to snapshot

    vSphere replication

    Monitor replication

  3. Create the storage user with the following privileges:

    Note

    For more details about all required privileges for the storage user, see vSphere Cloud Provider documentation.

    Privilege

    Permission

    Cloud Native Storage

    Searchable

    Content library

    View configuration settings

    Datastore

    • Allocate space

    • Browse datastore

    • Low level file operations

    • Remove file

    Folder

    • Create folder

    Host configuration

    • Storage partition configuration

    Host local operations

    • Create virtual machine

    • Delete virtual machine

    • Reconfigure virtual machine

    Host profile

    View

    Profile-driven storage

    Profile-driven storage view

    Resource

    Assign virtual machine to resource pool

    Scheduled task

    • Create tasks

    • Modify task

    • Run task

    Sessions

    • Validate session

    • View and stop sessions

    Storage views

    View

    Virtual machine permissions

    Privilege

    Permission

    Change configuration

    • Add existing disk

    • Add new disk

    • Add or remove device

    • Advanced configuration

    • Change CPU count

    • Change Memory

    • Change Settings

    • Configure managedBy

    • Extend virtual disk

    • Remove disk

    • Rename

    Inventory

    • Create from existing

    • Create new

    • Remove

  4. For RHEL deployments, if you do not have a RHEL machine with the virt-who service configured to report the vSphere environment configuration and hypervisors information to RedHat Customer Portal or RedHat Satellite server, set up the virt-who service inside the Container Cloud machines for a proper RHEL license activation.

    Create a virt-who user with at least read-only access to all objects in the vCenter Data Center.

    The virt-who service on RHEL machines will be provided with the virt-who user credentials to properly manage RHEL subscriptions.

    For details on how to create the virt-who user, refer to the official RedHat Customer Portal documentation.

Now, proceed to Bootstrap a management cluster.

Bootstrap a management cluster

After you complete the prerequisite steps described in Prerequisites, proceed with bootstrapping your VMware vSphere-based Mirantis Container Cloud management cluster.

To bootstrap a vSphere-based management cluster:

  1. Log in to the bootstrap node running Ubuntu 20.04 that is configured as described in Prerequisites.

  2. Prepare the bootstrap script:

    1. Download and run the Container Cloud bootstrap script:

      apt install wget
      wget https://binary.mirantis.com/releases/get_container_cloud.sh
      chmod 0755 get_container_cloud.sh
      ./get_container_cloud.sh
      
    2. Change the directory to the kaas-bootstrap folder created by the script.

  3. Obtain your license file that will be required during the bootstrap:

    1. Create a user account at www.mirantis.com.

    2. Log in to your account and download the mirantis.lic license file.

    3. Save the license file as mirantis.lic under the kaas-bootstrap directory on the bootstrap node.

    4. Verify that mirantis.lic contains the exact Container Cloud license previously downloaded from www.mirantis.com by decoding the license JWT token, for example, using jwt.io.

      Example of a valid decoded Container Cloud license data with the mandatory license field:

      {
          "exp": 1652304773,
          "iat": 1636669973,
          "sub": "demo",
          "license": {
              "dev": false,
              "limits": {
                  "clusters": 10,
                  "workers_per_cluster": 10
              },
              "openstack": null
          }
      }
      

      Warning

      The MKE license does not apply to mirantis.lic. For details about MKE license, see MKE documentation.

  4. Prepare deployment templates:

    1. Modify templates/vsphere/vsphere-config.yaml.template:

      vSphere configuration data

      Parameter

      Description

      SET_VSPHERE_SERVER

      IP address or FQDN of the vCenter Server.

      SET_VSPHERE_SERVER_PORT

      Port of the vCenter Server. For example, port: "8443". Leave empty to use 443 by default.

      SET_VSPHERE_DATACENTER

      vSphere data center name.

      SET_VSPHERE_SERVER_INSECURE

      Flag that controls validation of the vSphere Server certificate. Must be true or false.

      SET_VSPHERE_CAPI_PROVIDER_USERNAME

      vSphere Cluster API provider user name that you added when preparing the deployment user setup and permissions.

      SET_VSPHERE_CAPI_PROVIDER_PASSWORD

      vSphere Cluster API provider user password.

      SET_VSPHERE_CLOUD_PROVIDER_USERNAME

      vSphere Cloud Provider deployment user name that you added when preparing the deployment user setup and permissions.

      SET_VSPHERE_CLOUD_PROVIDER_PASSWORD

      vSphere Cloud Provider deployment user password.

    2. Modify the templates/vsphere/cluster.yaml.template parameters to fit your deployment. For example, add the corresponding values for cidrBlocks in the spec::clusterNetwork::services section.

      Required parameters

      Parameter

      Description

      SET_LB_HOST

      IP address from the provided vSphere network for load balancer (Keepalived).

      SET_VSPHERE_METALLB_RANGE

      MetalLB range of IP addresses that can be assigned to load balancers for Kubernetes Services.

      SET_VSPHERE_DATASTORE

      Name of the vSphere datastore. You can use different datastores for vSphere Cluster API and vSphere Cloud Provider.

      SET_VSPHERE_MACHINES_FOLDER

      Path to a folder where the cluster machines metadata will be stored.

      SET_VSPHERE_NETWORK_PATH

      Path to a network for cluster machines.

      SET_VSPHERE_RESOURCE_POOL_PATH

      Path to a resource pool in which VMs will be created.

    3. For either DHCP or non-DHCP vSphere network:

      1. Determine the vSphere network parameters as described in VMware vSphere network objects and IPAM recommendations.

      2. Provide the following additional parameters for a proper network setup on machines using embedded IP address management (IPAM) in templates/vsphere/cluster.yaml.template

      vSphere configuration data

      Parameter

      Description

      ipamEnabled

      Enables IPAM. Recommended value is true for either DHCP or non-DHCP networks.

      SET_VSPHERE_NETWORK_CIDR

      CIDR of the provided vSphere network. For example, 10.20.0.0/16.

      SET_VSPHERE_NETWORK_GATEWAY

      Gateway of the provided vSphere network.

      SET_VSPHERE_CIDR_INCLUDE_RANGES

      IP range for the cluster machines. Specify the range of the provided CIDR. For example, 10.20.0.100-10.20.0.200. If the DHCP network is used, this range must not intersect with the DHCP range of the network.

      SET_VSPHERE_CIDR_EXCLUDE_RANGES

      Optional. IP ranges to be excluded from being assigned to the cluster machines. The MetalLB range and SET_LB_HOST should not intersect with the addresses for IPAM. For example, 10.20.0.150-10.20.0.170.

      SET_VSPHERE_NETWORK_NAMESERVERS

      List of nameservers for the provided vSphere network.

    4. For RHEL deployments, fill out templates/vsphere/rhellicenses.yaml.template using one of the following set of parameters for RHEL machines subscription:

      • The user name and password of your RedHat Customer Portal account associated with your RHEL license for Virtual Datacenters.

        Optionally, provide the subscription allocation pools to use for the RHEL subscriptions activation. If not needed, remove the poolIDs field for subscription-manager to automatically select the licenses for machines.

        For example:

        spec:
          username: <username>
          password:
            value: <password>
          poolIDs:
          - <pool1>
          - <pool2>
        
      • The activation key and organization ID associated with your RedHat account with RHEL license for Virtual Datacenters. The activation key can be created by the organization administrator on RedHat Customer Portal.

        If you use the RedHat Satellite server for management of your RHEL infrastructure, you can provide a pre-generated activation key from that server. In this case:

        • Provide the URL to the RedHat Satellite RPM for installation of the CA certificate that belongs to that server.

        • Configure squid-proxy on the management or regional cluster to allow access to your Satellite server. For details, see Configure squid-proxy.

        For example:

        spec:
          activationKey:
            value: <activation key>
          orgID: "<organization ID>"
          rpmUrl: <rpm url>
        

        Caution

        For RHEL 8.4 TechPreview, verify mirrors configuration for your activation key. For more details, see RHEL 8 mirrors configuration.

      Caution

      Provide only one set of parameters. Mixing of parameters from different activation methods will cause deployment failure.

    5. For CentOS deployments, in templates/vsphere/rhellicenses.yaml.template, remove all lines under items:.

  5. In bootstrap.env, add the KAAS_VSPHERE_ENABLED=true environment variable that enables the vSphere provider deployment in Container Cloud.

  6. Optional if servers from the Ubuntu NTP pool (*.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org) are accessible from the node where the management cluster is being provisioned. Otherwise, this step is mandatory.

    Configure the regional NTP server parameters to be applied to all machines of regional and managed clusters in the specified region.

    In templates/vsphere/cluster.yaml.template, add the ntp:servers section with the list of required servers names:

    spec:
      ...
      providerSpec:
        value:
          kaas:
          ...
            regional:
              - helmReleases:
                - name: vsphere-provider
                  values:
                    config:
                      lcm:
                        ...
                        ntp:
                          servers:
                          - 0.pool.ntp.org
                          ...
                provider: vsphere
                ...
    
  7. Prepare the OVF template as described in Prepare the OVF template.

  8. In templates/vsphere/machines.yaml.template:

    • Define SET_VSPHERE_TEMPLATE_PATH prepared in the previous step

    • Modify other parameters as required

    spec:
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: vsphere.cluster.k8s.io/v1alpha1
          kind: VsphereMachineProviderSpec
          rhelLicense: <rhel-license-name>
          network:
            devices:
            - dhcp4: true
              dhcp6: false
          template: <SET_VSPHERE_TEMPLATE_PATH>
    

    Note

    The <rhel-license-name> value is the RHEL license name defined in rhellicenses.yaml.tempalte, defaults to kaas-mgmt-rhel-license. Remove or comment out this parameter for CentOS deployments.

  9. If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server, in bootstrap.env, add the following environment variables to bootstrap the management and regional cluster using proxy:

    • HTTP_PROXY

    • HTTPS_PROXY

    • NO_PROXY

    • PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH

    Example snippet:

    export HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.example.com:3128
    export HTTPS_PROXY=http://user:pass@proxy.example.com:3128
    export NO_PROXY=172.18.10.0,registry.internal.lan
    export PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH="/home/ubuntu/.mitmproxy/mitmproxy-ca-cert.cer"
    

    The following formats of variables are accepted:

    Proxy configuration data

    Variable

    Format

    HTTP_PROXY
    HTTPS_PROXY
    • http://proxy.example.com:port - for anonymous access

    • http://user:password@proxy.example.com:port - for restricted access

    NO_PROXY

    Comma-separated list of IP addresses or domain names

    PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH Available since 2.20.0 as GA

    Optional. Path to the proxy CA certificate for man-in-the-middle (MITM) proxies. Must be placed on the bootstrap node to be trusted. For details, see Install a CA certificate for a MITM proxy on a bootstrap node.

    Warning

    If you require Internet access to go through a MITM proxy, ensure that the proxy has streaming enabled as described in Enable streaming for MITM.

    Note

    • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, this parameter is generally available for the OpenStack, bare metal, Equinix Metal with private networking, AWS, and vSphere providers

    • For MOSK-based deployments, the feature support is available since MOSK 22.4

    • Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, this parameter is available as TechPreview for the OpenStack and bare metal providers only

    • For Azure and Equinix Metal with public networking, the feature is not supported

    For implementation details, see Proxy and cache support.

    Caution

    In MITM proxy deployments, RHEL machines registration using the Red Hat portal fails due to the known issue 26070. Therefore, use the internal Red Hat Satellite server that a VM can access directly without a MITM proxy.

    For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Requirements for a VMware vSphere-based cluster.

  10. Optional. Configure external identity provider for IAM.

  11. Optional, Technology Preview in Container Cloud 2.18.0. Removed in Container Cloud 2.19.0 for compatibility reasons, currently not supported. Enables encryption for the Kubernetes workloads network using the following field to the Cluster object spec:

     spec:
       providerSpec:
         value:
           secureOverlay: true
    

    For more details, see MKE documentation: Kubernetes network encryption.

    • When the option is enabled, Calico networking is configured to use IP-in-IP overlay and BGP routing.

    • When the option is disabled, Calico networking is configured to use VXLAN overlay (no BGP).

  12. Run the bootstrap script:

    ./bootstrap.sh all
    
    • In case of deployment issues, refer to Troubleshooting and inspect logs.

    • If the script fails for an unknown reason:

      1. Run the cleanup script:

        ./bootstrap.sh cleanup
        
      2. Rerun the bootstrap script.

  13. When the bootstrap is complete, collect and save the following management cluster details in a secure location:

    • The kubeconfig file located in the same directory as the bootstrap script. This file contains the admin credentials for the management cluster.

    • The private ssh_key for access to the management cluster nodes that is located in the same directory as the bootstrap script.

      Note

      If the initial version of your Container Cloud management cluster was earlier than 2.6.0, ssh_key is named openstack_tmp and is located at ~/.ssh/.

    • The URL for the Container Cloud web UI.

      To create users with permissions required for accessing the Container Cloud web UI, see Create initial users after a management cluster bootstrap.

    • The StackLight endpoints. For details, see Access StackLight web UIs.

    • The Keycloak URL that the system outputs when the bootstrap completes. The admin password for Keycloak is located in kaas-bootstrap/passwords.yml along with other IAM passwords.

    Note

    The Container Cloud web UI and StackLight endpoints are available through Transport Layer Security (TLS) and communicate with Keycloak to authenticate users. Keycloak is exposed using HTTPS and self-signed TLS certificates that are not trusted by web browsers.

    To use your own TLS certificates for Keycloak, refer to Configure TLS certificates for cluster applications.

    Note

    When the bootstrap is complete, the bootstrap cluster resources are freed up.

Now, you can proceed with operating your management cluster using the Container Cloud web UI and deploying managed clusters as described in Create and operate a VMware vSphere-based managed cluster.

Prepare the OVF template

To deploy Mirantis Container Cloud on a vSphere-based environment, the OVF template for cluster machines must be prepared according to the following requirements:

  1. The VMware Tools package is installed.

  2. The cloud-init utility is installed and configured with the specific VMwareGuestInfo data source.

  3. For RHEL deployments, the virt-who service is enabled and configured to connect to the VMware vCenter Server to properly apply the RHEL subscriptions on the nodes. The virt-who service can run on a standalone machine or can be integrated into a VM template.

The following procedures describe how to meet the requirements above either using the Container Cloud script or manually.

To prepare the OVF template using the Container Cloud script:

  1. Prepare the Container Cloud bootstrap and modify templates/vsphere/vsphere-config.yaml.template and templates/vsphere/cluster.yaml.template as described in Bootstrap a management cluster, steps 1-9.

  2. Download the ISO image depending on the target OS:

  3. Export the following variables:

    • The path to the downloaded ISO file.

    • The vSphere cluster name.

    • The OS name: rhel, ubuntu, or centos.

    • The OS version: 7.8, 7.9, or 8.4 TechPreview for RHEL; 7.9 for CentOS TechPreview, 20.04 for Ubuntu.

    • Optional. The virt-who user name and password for RHEL deployments.

    For example, for RHEL:

    export KAAS_VSPHERE_ENABLED=true
    export VSPHERE_RO_USER=virt-who-user
    export VSPHERE_RO_PASSWORD=virt-who-user-password
    export VSPHERE_PACKER_ISO_FILE=$(pwd)/iso-file.dvd.iso
    export VSPHERE_CLUSTER_NAME=vsphere-cluster-name
    export VSPHERE_PACKER_IMAGE_OS_NAME=rhel
    export VSPHERE_PACKER_IMAGE_OS_VERSION=7.9
    
    Optional variables

    Variable

    Description

    VSPHERE_VM_TIMEZONE

    Time zone for virtual machines. Defaults to America/New_York.

  4. Optional. If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server, in bootstrap.env, add the following environment variables:

    • HTTP_PROXY

    • HTTPS_PROXY

    • NO_PROXY

    • PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH

    Example snippet:

    export HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.example.com:3128
    export HTTPS_PROXY=http://user:pass@proxy.example.com:3128
    export NO_PROXY=172.18.10.0,registry.internal.lan
    export PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH="/home/ubuntu/.mitmproxy/mitmproxy-ca-cert.cer"
    

    The following formats of variables are accepted:

    Proxy configuration data

    Variable

    Format

    HTTP_PROXY
    HTTPS_PROXY
    • http://proxy.example.com:port - for anonymous access

    • http://user:password@proxy.example.com:port - for restricted access

    NO_PROXY

    Comma-separated list of IP addresses or domain names

    PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH Available since 2.20.0 as GA

    Optional. Path to the proxy CA certificate for man-in-the-middle (MITM) proxies. Must be placed on the bootstrap node to be trusted. For details, see Install a CA certificate for a MITM proxy on a bootstrap node.

    Warning

    If you require Internet access to go through a MITM proxy, ensure that the proxy has streaming enabled as described in Enable streaming for MITM.

    Note

    • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, this parameter is generally available for the OpenStack, bare metal, Equinix Metal with private networking, AWS, and vSphere providers

    • For MOSK-based deployments, the feature support is available since MOSK 22.4

    • Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, this parameter is available as TechPreview for the OpenStack and bare metal providers only

    • For Azure and Equinix Metal with public networking, the feature is not supported

    For implementation details, see Proxy and cache support.

    Caution

    In MITM proxy deployments, RHEL machines registration using the Red Hat portal fails due to the known issue 26070. Therefore, use the internal Red Hat Satellite server that a VM can access directly without a MITM proxy.

    For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Requirements for a VMware vSphere-based cluster.

  5. Prepare the OVF template:

    ./bootstrap.sh vsphere_template
    
  6. After the template is prepared, set the SET_VSPHERE_TEMPLATE_PATH parameter in templates/vsphere/machines.yaml.template as described in Bootstrap a management cluster.

To prepare the OVF template manually:

  1. Run a virtual machine on the vSphere data center with the DVD ISO mounted to it. Specify the amount of resources that will be used in the Container Cloud setup. A minimal resources configuration must match the Requirements for a VMware vSphere-based cluster for a vSphere-based Container Cloud cluster.

  2. Bootstrap the OS using vSphere Web Console. Select a minimal setup in the VM installation configuration. Create a user with root or sudo permissions to access the machine.

  3. Log in to the VM when it starts.

  4. Optional. If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server, in bootstrap.env, add the following environment variables:

    • HTTP_PROXY

    • HTTPS_PROXY

    • NO_PROXY

    • PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH

    Example snippet:

    export HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.example.com:3128
    export HTTPS_PROXY=http://user:pass@proxy.example.com:3128
    export NO_PROXY=172.18.10.0,registry.internal.lan
    export PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH="/home/ubuntu/.mitmproxy/mitmproxy-ca-cert.cer"
    

    The following formats of variables are accepted:

    Proxy configuration data

    Variable

    Format

    HTTP_PROXY
    HTTPS_PROXY
    • http://proxy.example.com:port - for anonymous access

    • http://user:password@proxy.example.com:port - for restricted access

    NO_PROXY

    Comma-separated list of IP addresses or domain names

    PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH Available since 2.20.0 as GA

    Optional. Path to the proxy CA certificate for man-in-the-middle (MITM) proxies. Must be placed on the bootstrap node to be trusted. For details, see Install a CA certificate for a MITM proxy on a bootstrap node.

    Warning

    If you require Internet access to go through a MITM proxy, ensure that the proxy has streaming enabled as described in Enable streaming for MITM.

    Note

    • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, this parameter is generally available for the OpenStack, bare metal, Equinix Metal with private networking, AWS, and vSphere providers

    • For MOSK-based deployments, the feature support is available since MOSK 22.4

    • Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, this parameter is available as TechPreview for the OpenStack and bare metal providers only

    • For Azure and Equinix Metal with public networking, the feature is not supported

    For implementation details, see Proxy and cache support.

    Caution

    In MITM proxy deployments, RHEL machines registration using the Red Hat portal fails due to the known issue 26070. Therefore, use the internal Red Hat Satellite server that a VM can access directly without a MITM proxy.

    For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Requirements for a VMware vSphere-based cluster.

  5. For RHEL, attach your RHEL license for Virtual Datacenters to the VM:

    subscription-manager register
    # automatic subscription selection:
    subscription-manager attach --auto
    # or specify pool id:
    subscription-manager attach --pool=<POOL_ID>
    # verify subscription status
    subscription-manager status
    
  6. Select from the following options:

    • Prepare the operating system automatically:

      1. Download the automation script:

        curl https://gerrit.mcp.mirantis.com/plugins/gitiles/kubernetes/vmware-guestinfo/+/refs/tags/v1.1.5/install.sh?format=TEXT | \
        base64 -d > install.sh
        chmod +x install.sh
        
      2. Optional. For RHEL, export the vCenter Server credentials of the read-only user. For example:

        export VC_SERVER='vcenter1.example.com'
        export VC_USER='domain\vmware_read_only_username'
        export VC_PASSWORD='password!23'
        # optional parameters:
        export VC_HYPERVISOR_ID=hostname
        export VC_FILTER_HOSTS="esx1.example.com, esx2.example.com"
        export VCENTER_CONFIG_PATH="/etc/virt-who.d/vcenter.conf"
        
      3. Run the installation script:

        ./install.sh
        
    • Prepare the operating system manually:

      1. Install the open-vm-tools package version 11.0.5 or later with dependencies and verify its version:

        yum install open-vm-tools net-tools perl -y
        vmtoolsd --version
        vmware-toolbox-cmd --version
        
      2. Install and configure cloud-init:

        1. Install the cloud-init package and verify its version:

          • 19.4 or later for RHEL 7.8 and 7.9, or CentOS 7.9 TechPreview

          • 20.3 or later for RHEL 8.4 TechPreview

          • 22.1 or later for Ubuntu 20.04

          yum install cloud-init -y
          cloud-init --version
          
        2. For RHEL and CentOS:

          1. Download the VMwareGuestInfo data source files:

            curl https://gerrit.mcp.mirantis.com/plugins/gitiles/kubernetes/vmware-guestinfo/+/refs/tags/v1.1.5/DataSourceVMwareGuestInfo.py?format=TEXT | base64 -d > DataSourceVMwareGuestInfo.py
            curl https://gerrit.mcp.mirantis.com/plugins/gitiles/kubernetes/vmware-guestinfo/+/refs/tags/v1.1.5/99-DataSourceVMwareGuestInfo.cfg?format=TEXT | base64 -d > 99-DataSourceVMwareGuestInfo.cfg
            
          2. Add 99-DataSourceVMwareGuestInfo.cfg to /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/.

          3. Depending on the Python version on the VM operating system, add DataSourceVMwareGuestInfo.py to the cloud-init sources folder. Obtain the cloud-init folder on the OS:

            python -c 'import os; from cloudinit import sources; print(os.path.dirname(sources.__file__));'
            
        3. For Ubuntu, create /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/99_mcc.cfg with the following content:

          datasource_list: [ VMware ]
          package_update: false
          package_upgrade: false
          apt:
          preserve_sources_list: true
          
      3. Optional. For RHEL, prepare the virt-who user configuration:

        Note

        For details about the virt-who user creation, see Prepare the VMware deployment user setup and permissions.

        1. Install virt-who:

          yum install virt-who -y
          cp /etc/virt-who.d/template.conf /etc/virt-who.d/vcenter.conf
          
        2. Set up the file content using the following example:

          [vcenter]
          type=esx
          server=vcenter1.example.com
          username=domain\vmware_read_only_username
          encrypted_password=bd257f93d@482B76e6390cc54aec1a4d
          owner=1234567
          hypervisor_id=hostname
          filter_hosts=esx1.example.com, esx2.example.com
          
          virt-who configuration parameters

          Parameter

          Description

          [vcenter]

          Name of the vCenter data center.

          type=esx

          Specifies the connection of the defined virt-who user to the vCenter Server.

          server

          The FQDN of the vCenter Server.

          username

          The virt-who user name on the vCenter Server with the read-only access.

          encrypted_password

          The virt-who password encrypted by the virt-who-password utility using the virt-who-password -p <password> command.

          owner

          The organization that the hypervisors belong to.

          hypervisor_id

          Specifies how to identify the hypervisors. Use a host name to provide meaningful host names to the Subscription Management. Alternatively, use uuid or hwuuid to avoid duplication in case of hypervisor renaming.

          filter_hosts

          List of hypervisors that never run RHEL VMs. Such hypervisors do not have to be reported by virt-who.

  7. For CentOS, verify that .yum mirrors are set to use only the *.centos.org URLs. Otherwise, access to other mirrors may be blocked by squid-proxy on managed clusters. For details, see Configure squid-proxy.

  8. For RHEL, remove the RHEL subscription from the node.

    subscription-manager remove --all
    subscription-manager unregister
    subscription-manager clean
    
  9. Shut down the VM.

  10. Create an OVF template from the VM.

Now, proceed to Bootstrap a management cluster.

Configure squid-proxy

By default squid-proxy allows an access only to the official RedHat subscription.rhsm.redhat.com and .cdn.redhat.com URLs or to the CentOS *.centos.org mirrors.

If you use RedHat Satellite server or if you want to access some specific yum repositories of RedHat or CentOS, allow those domains (or IPs addresses) in the squid-proxy configuration on the management or regional cluster.

Note

You can apply the procedure below before or after the management or regional cluster deployment.

To configure squid-proxy for an access to specific domains:

  1. Modify the allowed domains for squid-proxy in the regional Helm releases configuration for the vsphere provider using the example below.

    • For new deployments, modify templates/vsphere/cluster.yaml.template

    • For existing deployments, modify the management or regional cluster configuration:

      kubectl edit cluster <mgmtOrRegionalClusterName> -n <projectName>
      

    Example configuration:

    spec:
      ...
      providerSpec:
        value:
          ...
          kaas:
            ...
            regional:
              - helmReleases:
                ...
                - name: squid-proxy
                  values:
                    config:
                      domains:
                        rhel:
                        - .subscription.rhsm.redhat.com
                        - .cdn.redhat.com
                        - .centos.org
                        - .satellite.server.org
                        - .custom.centos.mirror.org
                        - 172.16.10.10
                provider: vsphere
    
  2. On a deployed cluster, verify that the configuration is applied properly by verifying configmap for squid-proxy:

    kubectl describe configmap squid-proxy -n kaas
    

    The squid.conf data should include the provided domains. For example:

    acl rhel dstdomain .subscription.rhsm.redhat.com .cdn.redhat.com .centos.org .satellite.server.org .custom.centos.mirror.org 172.16.10.10
    
RHEL 8 mirrors configuration

TechPreview

By default, the RHEL subscription grants access to the AppStream and BaseOS repositories that are not bound to a specific operating system version and that are stream repositories, so they are frequently updated. To deploy RHEL 8.4 and make sure that packages are installed from the version 8.4 AppStream and BaseOS repositories, RHEL VM template have the releasever variable for .yum set to 8.4. You can verify this variable in /etc/yum/vars/releasever on a VM.

If you are using the RedHat Satellite server, verify that your activation key is configured with the release version set to 8.4 and includes only the following repositories:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 for x86_64 - BaseOS RPMs 8.4

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 for x86_64 - AppStream RPMs 8.4

Deploy an additional regional cluster (optional)

After you bootstrap a management cluster of the required cloud provider type, you can optionally deploy an additional regional cluster of the same or different provider type. For details about regions, see Container Cloud regions.

Perform this procedure if you wish to operate managed clusters across clouds from a single Mirantis Container Cloud management plane.

Caution

  • A regional cluster requires access to the management cluster.

  • If you deploy a management cluster on a public cloud, such as AWS, Equinix Metal, or Microsoft Azure, you can add any type of regional cluster.

  • If you deploy a management cluster on a private cloud, such as OpenStack or vSphere, you can add only private-based regional clusters.

Multi-regional deployment enables you to create managed clusters of several provider types using one management cluster. For example, you can bootstrap an AWS-based management cluster and deploy an OpenStack-based regional cluster on this management cluster. Such cluster enables creation of OpenStack-based and AWS-based managed clusters with Kubernetes deployments.

Note

If the bootstrap node for deployment of an additional regional cluster is not the same where you bootstrapped the management cluster, first prepare the bootstrap as described in Configure the bootstrap node.

Configure the bootstrap node

This section describes how to prepare a new bootstrap node for an additional regional cluster deployment on top of the management cluster. To use the same node where you bootstrapped the management cluster, skip this instruction and proceed to deploying a regional cluster of the required provider type.

To configure a new bootstrap node for a regional cluster:

  1. Install and configure Docker:

    1. Log in to any personal computer or VM running Ubuntu 20.04 that you will be using as the bootstrap node.

    2. If you use a newly created VM, run:

      sudo apt-get update
      
    3. Install the current Docker version available for Ubuntu 20.04:

      sudo apt install docker.io
      
    4. Grant your USER access to the Docker daemon:

      sudo usermod -aG docker $USER
      
    5. Log off and log in again to the bootstrap node to apply the changes.

    6. Verify that Docker is configured correctly and has access to Container Cloud CDN. For example:

      docker run --rm alpine sh -c "apk add --no-cache curl; \
      curl https://binary.mirantis.com"
      

      The system output must contain no error records. In case of issues, follow the steps provided in Troubleshooting.

    Note

    If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server for security and audit purposes, configure Docker proxy settings as described in the official Docker documentation.

  2. Prepare the bootstrap script:

    1. Download and run the Container Cloud bootstrap script:

      apt install wget
      wget https://binary.mirantis.com/releases/get_container_cloud.sh
      chmod 0755 get_container_cloud.sh
      ./get_container_cloud.sh
      
    2. Change the directory to the kaas-bootstrap folder created by the script.

  3. If you deleted the mirantis.lic file used during the management cluster bootstrap:

    1. Create a user account at www.mirantis.com.

    2. Log in to your account and download the mirantis.lic license file.

    3. Save the license file as mirantis.lic under the kaas-bootstrap directory on the bootstrap node.

    4. Verify that mirantis.lic contains the exact Container Cloud license previously downloaded from www.mirantis.com by decoding the license JWT token, for example, using jwt.io.

      Example of a valid decoded Container Cloud license data with the mandatory license field:

      {
          "exp": 1652304773,
          "iat": 1636669973,
          "sub": "demo",
          "license": {
              "dev": false,
              "limits": {
                  "clusters": 10,
                  "workers_per_cluster": 10
              },
              "openstack": null
          }
      }
      

      Warning

      The MKE license does not apply to mirantis.lic. For details about MKE license, see MKE documentation.

  4. On the new bootstrap node, save the management cluster kubeconfig that was created after the management cluster bootstrap.

Now, proceed to deploying an additional regional cluster of the required provider type as described in Deploy an additional regional cluster.

Deploy an AWS-based regional cluster

You can deploy an additional regional AWS-based cluster to create managed clusters of several provider types or with different configurations.

To deploy an AWS-based regional cluster:

  1. Log in to the node where you bootstrapped a management cluster.

  2. Verify that the bootstrap directory is updated.

    Select from the following options:

    • For clusters deployed using Container Cloud 2.11.0 or later:

      ./container-cloud bootstrap download --management-kubeconfig <pathToMgmtKubeconfig> \
      --target-dir <pathToBootstrapDirectory>
      
    • For clusters deployed using the Container Cloud release earlier than 2.11.0 or if you deleted the kaas-bootstrap folder, download and run the Container Cloud bootstrap script:

      wget https://binary.mirantis.com/releases/get_container_cloud.sh
      
      chmod 0755 get_container_cloud.sh
      
      ./get_container_cloud.sh
      
  3. Prepare the AWS configuration for the new regional cluster:

    1. Verify access to the target cloud endpoint from Docker. For example:

      docker run --rm alpine sh -c "apk add --no-cache curl; \
      curl https://ec2.amazonaws.com"
      

      The system output must contain no error records. In case of issues, follow the steps provided in Troubleshooting.

    2. Change the directory to the kaas-bootstrap folder.

    3. In templates/aws/machines.yaml.template, modify the spec:providerSpec:value section by substituting the ami:id parameter with the corresponding value for Ubuntu 20.04 from the required AWS region. For example:

      spec:
        providerSpec:
          value:
            apiVersion: aws.kaas.mirantis.com/v1alpha1
            kind: AWSMachineProviderSpec
            instanceType: c5.4xlarge
            ami:
              id: ami-033a0960d9d83ead0
      

      Also, modify other parameters as required.

      Warning

      Do not stop the AWS instances dedicated to the Container Cloud clusters to prevent data failure and cluster disaster.

    4. Optional. In templates/aws/cluster.yaml.template, modify the values of the spec:providerSpec:value:bastion:amiId and spec:providerSpec:value:bastion:instanceType sections by setting the necessary Ubuntu AMI ID and instance type in the required AWS region respectively. For example:

      spec:
        providerSpec:
          value:
            apiVersion: aws.kaas.mirantis.com/v1alpha1
            kind: AWSClusterProviderSpec
            bastion:
              amiId: ami-0fb653ca2d3203ac1
              instanceType: t3.micro
      
    5. Optional. In templates/aws/cluster.yaml.template, modify the default configuration of the AWS instance types and AMI IDs for further creation of managed clusters:

      providerSpec:
          value:
            ...
            kaas:
              ...
              regional:
              - provider: aws
                helmReleases:
                  - name: aws-credentials-controller
                    values:
                      config:
                        allowedInstanceTypes:
                          minVCPUs: 8
                          # in MiB
                          minMemory: 16384
                          # in GB
                          minStorage: 120
                          supportedArchitectures:
                          - "x86_64"
                          filters:
                          - name: instance-storage-info.disk.type
                            values:
                              - "ssd"
                        allowedAMIs:
                        -
                          - name: name
                            values:
                            - "ubuntu/images/hvm-ssd/ubuntu-focal-20.04-amd64-server-20210325"
                          - name: owner-id
                            values:
                            - "099720109477"
      

      Also, modify other parameters as required.

  4. If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server, in bootstrap.env, add the following environment variables to bootstrap the regional cluster using proxy:

    • HTTP_PROXY

    • HTTPS_PROXY

    • NO_PROXY

    • PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH

    Example snippet:

    export HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.example.com:3128
    export HTTPS_PROXY=http://user:pass@proxy.example.com:3128
    export NO_PROXY=172.18.10.0,registry.internal.lan
    export PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH="/home/ubuntu/.mitmproxy/mitmproxy-ca-cert.cer"
    

    The following formats of variables are accepted:

    Proxy configuration data

    Variable

    Format

    HTTP_PROXY
    HTTPS_PROXY
    • http://proxy.example.com:port - for anonymous access

    • http://user:password@proxy.example.com:port - for restricted access

    NO_PROXY

    Comma-separated list of IP addresses or domain names

    PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH Available since 2.20.0 as GA

    Optional. Path to the proxy CA certificate for man-in-the-middle (MITM) proxies. Must be placed on the bootstrap node to be trusted. For details, see Install a CA certificate for a MITM proxy on a bootstrap node.

    Warning

    If you require Internet access to go through a MITM proxy, ensure that the proxy has streaming enabled as described in Enable streaming for MITM.

    Note

    • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, this parameter is generally available for the OpenStack, bare metal, Equinix Metal with private networking, AWS, and vSphere providers

    • For MOSK-based deployments, the feature support is available since MOSK 22.4

    • Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, this parameter is available as TechPreview for the OpenStack and bare metal providers only

    • For Azure and Equinix Metal with public networking, the feature is not supported

    For implementation details, see Proxy and cache support.

    For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Requirements for an AWS-based cluster.

  5. Optional if servers from the Ubuntu NTP pool (*.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org) are accessible from the node where the regional cluster is being provisioned. Otherwise, this step is mandatory.

    Configure the regional NTP server parameters to be applied to all machines of regional and managed clusters in the specified region.

    In templates/aws/cluster.yaml.template, add the ntp:servers section with the list of required servers names:

    spec:
      ...
      providerSpec:
        value:
          kaas:
          ...
            regional:
              - helmReleases:
                - name: aws-provider
                  values:
                    config:
                      lcm:
                        ...
                        ntp:
                          servers:
                          - 0.pool.ntp.org
                          ...
                provider: aws
                ...
    
  6. Optional, Technology Preview in Container Cloud 2.18.0. Removed in Container Cloud 2.19.0 for compatibility reasons, currently not supported. Enables encryption for the Kubernetes workloads network using the following field to the Cluster object spec:

     spec:
       providerSpec:
         value:
           secureOverlay: true
    

    For more details, see MKE documentation: Kubernetes network encryption.

    • When the option is enabled, Calico networking is configured to use IP-in-IP overlay and BGP routing.

    • When the option is disabled, Calico networking is configured to use VXLAN overlay (no BGP).

  7. For Container Cloud to communicate with the AWS APIs, create the AWS CloudFormation stack that contains properly configured IAM users and policies.

    Note

    If the AWS CloudFormation stack already exists in your AWS account, skip this step.

    ./container-cloud bootstrap aws policy
    

    If you do not have access to create the CloudFormation stack, users, or policies:

    1. Log in to your AWS Management Console.

    2. On the home page, expand the upper right menu with your user name and capture your Account ID.

    3. Create the CloudFormation template:

      ./container-cloud bootstrap aws policy --account-id <accountId> --dump > cf.yaml
      

      Substitute the parameter enclosed in angle brackets with the corresponding value.

    4. Send the cf.yaml template to your AWS account admin to create the CloudFormation stack from this template.

      The generated template includes the following lists of IAM permissions:

      • ec2:DescribeInstances

      • ec2:DescribeRegions

      • ecr:GetAuthorizationToken

      • ecr:BatchCheckLayerAvailability

      • ecr:GetDownloadUrlForLayer

      • ecr:GetRepositoryPolicy

      • ecr:DescribeRepositories

      • ecr:ListImages

      • ecr:BatchGetImage

      • ec2:AllocateAddress

      • ec2:AssociateRouteTable

      • ec2:AttachInternetGateway

      • ec2:AuthorizeSecurityGroupIngress

      • ec2:CreateInternetGateway

      • ec2:CreateNatGateway

      • ec2:CreateRoute

      • ec2:CreateRouteTable

      • ec2:CreateSecurityGroup

      • ec2:CreateSubnet

      • ec2:CreateTags

      • ec2:CreateVpc

      • ec2:ModifyVpcAttribute

      • ec2:DeleteInternetGateway

      • ec2:DeleteNatGateway

      • ec2:DeleteRouteTable

      • ec2:DeleteSecurityGroup

      • ec2:DeleteSubnet

      • ec2:DeleteTags

      • ec2:DeleteVpc

      • ec2:DescribeAccountAttributes

      • ec2:DescribeAddresses

      • ec2:DescribeAvailabilityZones

      • ec2:DescribeInstances

      • ec2:DescribeInstanceTypes

      • ec2:DescribeInternetGateways

      • ec2:DescribeImages

      • ec2:DescribeNatGateways

      • ec2:DescribeNetworkInterfaces

      • ec2:DescribeNetworkInterfaceAttribute

      • ec2:DescribeRegions

      • ec2:DescribeRouteTables

      • ec2:DescribeSecurityGroups

      • ec2:DescribeSubnets

      • ec2:DescribeVpcs

      • ec2:DescribeVpcAttribute

      • ec2:DescribeVolumes

      • ec2:DetachInternetGateway

      • ec2:DisassociateRouteTable

      • ec2:DisassociateAddress

      • ec2:ModifyInstanceAttribute

      • ec2:ModifyNetworkInterfaceAttribute

      • ec2:ModifySubnetAttribute

      • ec2:ReleaseAddress

      • ec2:RevokeSecurityGroupIngress

      • ec2:RunInstances

      • ec2:TerminateInstances

      • tag:GetResources

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:ConfigureHealthCheck

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeLoadBalancers

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeLoadBalancerAttributes

      • elasticloadbalancing:ModifyLoadBalancerAttributes

      • elasticloadbalancing:RegisterInstancesWithLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeTargetGroups

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateTargetGroup

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteTargetGroup

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeListeners

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateListener

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteListener

      • elasticloadbalancing:RegisterTargets

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeregisterTargets

      • autoscaling:DescribeAutoScalingGroups

      • autoscaling:DescribeLaunchConfigurations

      • autoscaling:DescribeTags

      • ec2:DescribeInstances

      • ec2:DescribeImages

      • ec2:DescribeRegions

      • ec2:DescribeRouteTables

      • ec2:DescribeSecurityGroups

      • ec2:DescribeSubnets

      • ec2:DescribeVolumes

      • ec2:CreateSecurityGroup

      • ec2:CreateTags

      • ec2:CreateVolume

      • ec2:ModifyInstanceAttribute

      • ec2:ModifyVolume

      • ec2:AttachVolume

      • ec2:AuthorizeSecurityGroupIngress

      • ec2:CreateRoute

      • ec2:DeleteRoute

      • ec2:DeleteSecurityGroup

      • ec2:DeleteVolume

      • ec2:DetachVolume

      • ec2:RevokeSecurityGroupIngress

      • ec2:DescribeVpcs

      • elasticloadbalancing:AddTags

      • elasticloadbalancing:AttachLoadBalancerToSubnets

      • elasticloadbalancing:ApplySecurityGroupsToLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancerPolicy

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancerListeners

      • elasticloadbalancing:ConfigureHealthCheck

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteLoadBalancerListeners

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeLoadBalancers

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeLoadBalancerAttributes

      • elasticloadbalancing:DetachLoadBalancerFromSubnets

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeregisterInstancesFromLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:ModifyLoadBalancerAttributes

      • elasticloadbalancing:RegisterInstancesWithLoadBalancer

      • elasticloadbalancing:SetLoadBalancerPoliciesForBackendServer

      • elasticloadbalancing:AddTags

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateListener

      • elasticloadbalancing:CreateTargetGroup

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteListener

      • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteTargetGroup

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeListeners

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeLoadBalancerPolicies

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeTargetGroups

      • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeTargetHealth

      • elasticloadbalancing:ModifyListener

      • elasticloadbalancing:ModifyTargetGroup

      • elasticloadbalancing:RegisterTargets

      • elasticloadbalancing:SetLoadBalancerPoliciesOfListener

      • iam:CreateServiceLinkedRole

      • kms:DescribeKey

  8. Configure the bootstrapper.cluster-api-provider-aws.kaas.mirantis.com user created in the previous steps:

    1. Using your AWS Management Console, generate the AWS Access Key ID with Secret Access Key for bootstrapper.cluster-api-provider-aws.kaas.mirantis.com and select the AWS default region name.

      Note

      Other authorization methods, such as usage of AWS_SESSION_TOKEN, are not supported.

    2. Export the AWS bootstrapper.cluster-api-provider-aws.kaas.mirantis.com user credentials that were created in the previous step:

      export KAAS_AWS_ENABLED=true
      export AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=XXXXXXX
      export AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=XXXXXXX
      export AWS_DEFAULT_REGION=us-east-2
      
  9. Export the following parameters:

    export KUBECONFIG=<pathToMgmtClusterKubeconfig>
    export REGIONAL_CLUSTER_NAME=<newRegionalClusterName>
    export REGION=<NewRegionName>
    

    Substitute the parameters enclosed in angle brackets with the corresponding values of your cluster.

    Caution

    The REGION and REGIONAL_CLUSTER_NAME parameters values must contain only lowercase alphanumeric characters, hyphens, or periods.

    Note

    If the bootstrap node for the regional cluster deployment is not the same where you bootstrapped the management cluster, also export SSH_KEY_NAME. It is required for the management cluster to create a publicKey Kubernetes CRD with the public part of your newly generated ssh_key for the regional cluster.

    export SSH_KEY_NAME=<newRegionalClusterSshKeyName>
    
  10. Run the regional cluster bootstrap script:

    ./bootstrap.sh deploy_regional
    

    Note

    When the bootstrap is complete, obtain and save in a secure location the kubeconfig-<regionalClusterName> file located in the same directory as the bootstrap script. This file contains the admin credentials for the regional cluster.

    If the bootstrap node for the regional cluster deployment is not the same where you bootstrapped the management cluster, a new regional ssh_key will be generated. Make sure to save this key in a secure location as well.

    The workflow of the regional cluster bootstrap script

    #

    Description

    1

    Prepare the bootstrap cluster for the new regional cluster.

    2

    Load the updated Container Cloud CRDs for Credentials, Cluster, and Machines with information about the new regional cluster to the management cluster.

    3

    Connect to each machine of the management cluster through SSH.

    4

    Wait for the Machines and Cluster objects of the new regional cluster to be ready on the management cluster.

    5

    Load the following objects to the new regional cluster: Secret with the management cluster kubeconfig and ClusterRole for the Container Cloud provider.

    6

    Forward the bootstrap cluster endpoint to helm-controller.

    7

    Wait for all CRDs to be available and verify the objects created using these CRDs.

    8

    Pivot the cluster API stack to the regional cluster.

    9

    Switch the LCM Agent from the bootstrap cluster to the regional one.

    10

    Wait for the Container Cloud components to start on the regional cluster.

Now, you can proceed with deploying the managed clusters of supported provider types as described in Create and operate managed clusters.

Deploy an Azure-based regional cluster

You can deploy an additional regional Azure-based cluster to create managed clusters of several provider types or with different configurations.

To deploy an Azure-based regional cluster:

  1. Log in to the node where you bootstrapped a management cluster.

  2. Prepare the Azure configuration for the new regional cluster:

    1. Create an Azure service principal. Skip this step to use an existing Azure service principal.

      1. Create a Microsoft Azure account.

      2. Install Azure CLI.

      3. Log in to the Azure CLI:

        az login
        
      4. List your Azure accounts:

        az account list -o table
        
      5. If more than one account exists, select the account dedicated for Container Cloud:

        az account set -s <subscriptionID>
        
      6. Create an Azure service principal:

        Caution

        The owner role is required for creation of role assignments.

        az ad sp create-for-rbac --role contributor --scopes="/subscriptions/<subscriptionID>"
        

        Example of system response:

        {
           "appId": "0c87aM5a-e172-182b-a91a-a9b8d39ddbcd",
           "displayName": "azure-cli-2021-08-04-15-25-16",
           "name": "1359ac72-5794-494d-b787-1d7309b7f8bc",
           "password": "Q1jB2-7Uz6Cka7xos6vL-Ddb4BQx2vgMl",
           "tenant": "6d498697-7anvd-4172-a7v0-4e5b2e25f280"
        }
        
    2. Change the directory to kaas-bootstrap.

    3. Export the following parameter:

      export KAAS_AZURE_ENABLED=true
      
    4. In templates/azure/azure-config.yaml.template, modify the following parameters using credentials obtained in the previous steps or using credentials of an existing Azure service principal obtained from the subscription owner:

      • spec:subscriptionID is the subscription ID of your Azure account

      • spec:tenantID is the value of "tenant"

      • spec:clientID is the value of "appId"

      • spec:clientSecret:value is the value of "password"

      For example:

      spec:
        subscriptionID: b8bea78f-zf7s-s7vk-s8f0-642a6v7a39c1
        tenantID: 6d498697-7anvd-4172-a7v0-4e5b2e25f280
        clientID: 0c87aM5a-e172-182b-a91a-a9b8d39ddbcd
        clientSecret:
          value: Q1jB2-7Uz6Cka7xos6vL-Ddb4BQx2vgMl
      
    5. In templates/azure/cluster.yaml.template, modify the default configuration of the Azure cluster location. This is an Azure region that your subscription has quota for.

      To obtain the list of available locations, run:

      az account list-locations -o=table
      

      For example:

      providerSpec:
        value:
        ...
          location: southcentralus
      

      Also, modify other parameters as required.

  3. If you require Internet access to go through a proxy server, in bootstrap.env, add the following environment variables to bootstrap the regional cluster using proxy:

    • HTTP_PROXY

    • HTTPS_PROXY

    • NO_PROXY

    Example snippet:

    export HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.example.com:3128
    export HTTPS_PROXY=http://user:pass@proxy.example.com:3128
    export NO_PROXY=172.18.10.0,registry.internal.lan
    

    The following formats of variables are accepted:

    Proxy configuration data

    Variable

    Format

    HTTP_PROXY
    HTTPS_PROXY
    • http://proxy.example.com:port - for anonymous access

    • http://user:password@proxy.example.com:port - for restricted access

    NO_PROXY

    Comma-separated list of IP addresses or domain names

    For implementation details, see Proxy and cache support.

    For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Requirements for an Azure-based cluster.

  4. Optional if servers from the Ubuntu NTP pool (*.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org) are accessible from the node where the regional cluster is being provisioned. Otherwise, this step is mandatory.

    Configure the regional NTP server parameters to be applied to all machines of regional and managed clusters in the specified region.

    In templates/azure/cluster.yaml.template, add the ntp:servers section with the list of required servers names:

    spec:
      ...
      providerSpec:
        value:
          kaas:
          ...
            regional:
              - helmReleases:
                - name: azure-provider
                  values:
                    config:
                      lcm:
                        ...
                        ntp:
                          servers:
                          - 0.pool.ntp.org
                          ...
                provider: azure
                ...
    
  5. Export the following parameters:

    export KUBECONFIG=<pathToMgmtClusterKubeconfig>
    export REGIONAL_CLUSTER_NAME=<newRegionalClusterName>
    export REGION=<NewRegionName>
    

    Substitute the parameters enclosed in angle brackets with the corresponding values of your cluster.

    Caution

    The REGION and REGIONAL_CLUSTER_NAME parameters values must contain only lowercase alphanumeric characters, hyphens, or periods.

    Note

    If the bootstrap node for the regional cluster deployment is not the same where you bootstrapped the management cluster, also export SSH_KEY_NAME. It is required for the management cluster to create a publicKey Kubernetes CRD with the public part of your newly generated ssh_key for the regional cluster.

    export SSH_KEY_NAME=<newRegionalClusterSshKeyName>
    
  6. Run the regional cluster bootstrap script:

    ./bootstrap.sh deploy_regional
    

    Note

    When the bootstrap is complete, obtain and save in a secure location the kubeconfig-<regionalClusterName> file located in the same directory as the bootstrap script. This file contains the admin credentials for the regional cluster.

    If the bootstrap node for the regional cluster deployment is not the same where you bootstrapped the management cluster, a new regional ssh_key will be generated. Make sure to save this key in a secure location as well.

    The workflow of the regional cluster bootstrap script

    #

    Description

    1

    Prepare the bootstrap cluster for the new regional cluster.

    2

    Load the updated Container Cloud CRDs for Credentials, Cluster, and Machines with information about the new regional cluster to the management cluster.

    3

    Connect to each machine of the management cluster through SSH.

    4

    Wait for the Machines and Cluster objects of the new regional cluster to be ready on the management cluster.

    5

    Load the following objects to the new regional cluster: Secret with the management cluster kubeconfig and ClusterRole for the Container Cloud provider.

    6

    Forward the bootstrap cluster endpoint to helm-controller.

    7

    Wait for all CRDs to be available and verify the objects created using these CRDs.

    8

    Pivot the cluster API stack to the regional cluster.

    9

    Switch the LCM Agent from the bootstrap cluster to the regional one.

    10

    Wait for the Container Cloud components to start on the regional cluster.

Now, you can proceed with deploying the managed clusters of supported provider types as described in Create and operate managed clusters.

Deploy an OpenStack-based regional cluster

You can deploy an additional regional OpenStack-based cluster to create managed clusters of several provider types or with different configurations.

To deploy an OpenStack-based regional cluster:

  1. Log in to the node where you bootstrapped a management cluster.

  2. Verify that the bootstrap directory is updated.

    Select from the following options:

    • For clusters deployed using Container Cloud 2.11.0 or later:

      ./container-cloud bootstrap download --management-kubeconfig <pathToMgmtKubeconfig> \
      --target-dir <pathToBootstrapDirectory>
      
    • For clusters deployed using the Container Cloud release earlier than 2.11.0 or if you deleted the kaas-bootstrap folder, download and run the Container Cloud bootstrap script:

      wget https://binary.mirantis.com/releases/get_container_cloud.sh
      
      chmod 0755 get_container_cloud.sh
      
      ./get_container_cloud.sh
      
  3. Prepare the OpenStack configuration for a new regional cluster:

    1. Log in to the OpenStack Horizon.

    2. In the Project section, select API Access.

    3. In the right-side drop-down menu Download OpenStack RC File, select OpenStack clouds.yaml File.

    4. Save the downloaded clouds.yaml file in the kaas-bootstrap folder created by the get_container_cloud.sh script.

    5. In clouds.yaml, add the password field with your OpenStack password under the clouds/openstack/auth section.

      Example:

      clouds:
        openstack:
          auth:
            auth_url: https://auth.openstack.example.com/v3
            username: your_username
            password: your_secret_password
            project_id: your_project_id
            user_domain_name: your_user_domain_name
          region_name: RegionOne
          interface: public
          identity_api_version: 3
      
    6. Available since Container Cloud 2.17.0. If you deploy Container Cloud on top of MOSK Victoria with Tungsten Fabric and use the default security group for newly created load balancers, add the following rules for Kubernetes API server endpoint, Container Cloud application endpoint, and for MKE web UI and API using the OpenStack CLI:

      • direction='ingress'

      • ethertype='IPv4'

      • protocol='tcp'

      • remote_ip_prefix='0.0.0.0/0'

      • port_range_max and port_range_min:

        • '443' for Kubernetes API and Container Cloud application endpoints

        • '6443' for MKE web UI and API

    7. Verify access to the target cloud endpoint from Docker. For example:

      docker run --rm alpine sh -c "apk add --no-cache curl; \
      curl https://auth.openstack.example.com/v3"
      

      The system output must contain no error records.

    In case of issues, follow the steps provided in Troubleshooting.

  4. Configure the cluster and machines metadata:

    1. In templates/machines.yaml.template, modify the spec:providerSpec:value section for 3 control plane nodes marked with the cluster.sigs.k8s.io/control-plane label by substituting the flavor and image parameters with the corresponding values of the control plane nodes in the related OpenStack cluster. For example:

      spec: &cp_spec
        providerSpec:
          value:
            apiVersion: "openstackproviderconfig.k8s.io/v1alpha1"
            kind: "OpenstackMachineProviderSpec"
            flavor: kaas.minimal
            image: bionic-server-cloudimg-amd64-20190612
      

      Note

      The flavor parameter value provided in the example above is cloud-specific and must meet the Container Cloud requirements.

      Also, modify other parameters as required.

    2. Modify the templates/cluster.yaml.template parameters to fit your deployment. For example, add the corresponding values for cidrBlocks in the spec::clusterNetwork::services section.

  5. Optional. Available since Container Cloud 2.18.0 as TechPreview. To boot cluster machines from a block storage volume, define the following parameter in the spec:providerSpec section of templates/machines.yaml.template:

    bootFromVolume:
      enabled: true
      volumeSize: 120
    

    Note

    The minimal storage requirement is 120 GB per node. For details, see Requirements for an OpenStack-based cluster.

    To boot the Bastion node from a volume, add the same parameter to templates/cluster.yaml.template in the spec:providerSpec section for Bastion. The default amount of storage 80 is enough.

  6. Optional if servers from the Ubuntu NTP pool (*.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org) are accessible from the node where the regional cluster is being provisioned. Otherwise, this step is mandatory.

    Configure the regional NTP server parameters to be applied to all machines of regional and managed clusters in the specified region.

    In templates/cluster.yaml.template, add the ntp:servers section with the list of required servers names:

    spec:
      ...
      providerSpec:
        value:
          kaas:
          ...
            regional:
              - helmReleases:
                - name: openstack-provider
                  values:
                    config:
                      lcm:
                        ...
                        ntp:
                          servers:
                          - 0.pool.ntp.org
                          ...
                provider: openstack
                ...
    
  7. Optional. If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server, in bootstrap.env, add the following environment variables to bootstrap the regional cluster using proxy:

    • HTTP_PROXY

    • HTTPS_PROXY

    • NO_PROXY

    • PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH

    Example snippet:

    export HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.example.com:3128
    export HTTPS_PROXY=http://user:pass@proxy.example.com:3128
    export NO_PROXY=172.18.10.0,registry.internal.lan
    export PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH="/home/ubuntu/.mitmproxy/mitmproxy-ca-cert.cer"
    

    The following formats of variables are accepted:

    Proxy configuration data

    Variable

    Format

    HTTP_PROXY
    HTTPS_PROXY
    • http://proxy.example.com:port - for anonymous access

    • http://user:password@proxy.example.com:port - for restricted access

    NO_PROXY

    Comma-separated list of IP addresses or domain names

    PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH Available since 2.20.0 as GA

    Optional. Path to the proxy CA certificate for man-in-the-middle (MITM) proxies. Must be placed on the bootstrap node to be trusted. For details, see Install a CA certificate for a MITM proxy on a bootstrap node.

    Warning

    If you require Internet access to go through a MITM proxy, ensure that the proxy has streaming enabled as described in Enable streaming for MITM.

    Note

    • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, this parameter is generally available for the OpenStack, bare metal, Equinix Metal with private networking, AWS, and vSphere providers

    • For MOSK-based deployments, the feature support is available since MOSK 22.4

    • Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, this parameter is available as TechPreview for the OpenStack and bare metal providers only

    • For Azure and Equinix Metal with public networking, the feature is not supported

    For implementation details, see Proxy and cache support.

    For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Requirements for an OpenStack-based cluster.

  8. Optional, Technology Preview in Container Cloud 2.18.0. Removed in Container Cloud 2.19.0 for compatibility reasons, currently not supported. Enables encryption for the Kubernetes workloads network using the following field to the Cluster object spec:

     spec:
       providerSpec:
         value:
           secureOverlay: true
    

    For more details, see MKE documentation: Kubernetes network encryption.

    • When the option is enabled, Calico networking is configured to use IP-in-IP overlay and BGP routing.

    • When the option is disabled, Calico networking is configured to use VXLAN overlay (no BGP).

  9. Clean up the environment configuration:

    • If you are deploying the regional cluster on top of a baremetal-based management cluster, unset the following parameters:

      unset KAAS_BM_ENABLED KAAS_BM_FULL_PREFLIGHT KAAS_BM_PXE_IP \
            KAAS_BM_PXE_MASK KAAS_BM_PXE_BRIDGE KAAS_BM_BM_DHCP_RANGE \
            TEMPLATES_DIR
      
    • If you are deploying the regional cluster on top of an AWS-based management cluster, unset the KAAS_AWS_ENABLED parameter:

      unset KAAS_AWS_ENABLED
      

    Note

    If you are deploying the regional cluster on top of a management cluster of other supported cloud providers, skip this step.

  10. Export the following parameters:

    export KUBECONFIG=<pathToMgmtClusterKubeconfig>
    export REGIONAL_CLUSTER_NAME=<newRegionalClusterName>
    export REGION=<NewRegionName>
    

    Substitute the parameters enclosed in angle brackets with the corresponding values of your cluster.

    Caution

    The REGION and REGIONAL_CLUSTER_NAME parameters values must contain only lowercase alphanumeric characters, hyphens, or periods.

    Note

    If the bootstrap node for the regional cluster deployment is not the same where you bootstrapped the management cluster, also export SSH_KEY_NAME. It is required for the management cluster to create a publicKey Kubernetes CRD with the public part of your newly generated ssh_key for the regional cluster.

    export SSH_KEY_NAME=<newRegionalClusterSshKeyName>
    
  11. Run the regional cluster bootstrap script:

    ./bootstrap.sh deploy_regional
    

    Note

    When the bootstrap is complete, obtain and save in a secure location the kubeconfig-<regionalClusterName> file located in the same directory as the bootstrap script. This file contains the admin credentials for the regional cluster.

    If the bootstrap node for the regional cluster deployment is not the same where you bootstrapped the management cluster, a new regional ssh_key will be generated. Make sure to save this key in a secure location as well.

    The workflow of the regional cluster bootstrap script

    #

    Description

    1

    Prepare the bootstrap cluster for the new regional cluster.

    2

    Load the updated Container Cloud CRDs for Credentials, Cluster, and Machines with information about the new regional cluster to the management cluster.

    3

    Connect to each machine of the management cluster through SSH.

    4

    Wait for the Machines and Cluster objects of the new regional cluster to be ready on the management cluster.

    5

    Load the following objects to the new regional cluster: Secret with the management cluster kubeconfig and ClusterRole for the Container Cloud provider.

    6

    Forward the bootstrap cluster endpoint to helm-controller.

    7

    Wait for all CRDs to be available and verify the objects created using these CRDs.

    8

    Pivot the cluster API stack to the regional cluster.

    9

    Switch the LCM Agent from the bootstrap cluster to the regional one.

    10

    Wait for the Container Cloud components to start on the regional cluster.

Now, you can proceed with deploying the managed clusters of supported provider types as described in Create and operate managed clusters.

Deploy an Equinix Metal based regional cluster with public networking

Caution

Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, the public networking mode for the Equinix Metal based clusters is deprecated for the sake of the private networking mode. Deployments with public networks will become unsupported in one of the following Container Cloud releases.

You can deploy an additional regional Equinix Metal based cluster with public networking to create managed clusters of several provider types or with different configurations.

To deploy an Equinix Metal based regional cluster:

  1. Configure BGP for your Equinix Metal project as described in Equinix Metal project setup.

  2. Log in to the node where you bootstrapped the Container Cloud management cluster.

  3. Verify that the bootstrap directory is updated.

    Select from the following options:

    • For clusters deployed using Container Cloud 2.11.0 or later:

      ./container-cloud bootstrap download --management-kubeconfig <pathToMgmtKubeconfig> \
      --target-dir <pathToBootstrapDirectory>
      
    • For clusters deployed using the Container Cloud release earlier than 2.11.0 or if you deleted the kaas-bootstrap folder, download and run the Container Cloud bootstrap script:

      wget https://binary.mirantis.com/releases/get_container_cloud.sh
      
      chmod 0755 get_container_cloud.sh
      
      ./get_container_cloud.sh
      
  4. Prepare the Equinix Metal configuration for the new regional cluster:

    1. Change the directory to kaas-bootstrap.

    2. In templates/equinix/equinix-config.yaml.template, modify spec:projectID and spec:apiToken:value using the values obtained in the previous steps. For example:

      spec:
        projectID: g98sd6f8-dc7s-8273-v8s7-d9v7395nd91
        apiToken:
          value: Bi3m9c7qjYBD3UgsnSCSsqs2bYkbK
      
    3. In templates/equinix/cluster.yaml.template, modify the default configuration of the Equinix Metal facility depending on the previously prepared capacity settings:

      providerSpec:
        value:
        ...
          facility: am6
      

      Also, modify other parameters as required.

    4. Optional. In templates/equinix/machines.yaml.template, modify the default configuration of the Equinix Metal machine type. The minimal required type is c3.small.x86.

      providerSpec:
        value:
        ...
          machineType: c3.small.x86
      

      Also, modify other parameters as required.

  5. If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server, in bootstrap.env, add the following environment variables to bootstrap the regional cluster using proxy:

    • HTTP_PROXY

    • HTTPS_PROXY

    • NO_PROXY

    Example snippet:

    export HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.example.com:3128
    export HTTPS_PROXY=http://user:pass@proxy.example.com:3128
    export NO_PROXY=172.18.10.0,registry.internal.lan
    

    The following formats of variables are accepted:

    Proxy configuration data

    Variable

    Format

    HTTP_PROXY
    HTTPS_PROXY
    • http://proxy.example.com:port - for anonymous access

    • http://user:password@proxy.example.com:port - for restricted access

    NO_PROXY

    Comma-separated list of IP addresses or domain names

    For implementation details, see Proxy and cache support.

    For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Requirements for an Equinix Metal based cluster.

  6. Optional if servers from the Ubuntu NTP pool (*.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org) are accessible from the node where the regional cluster is being provisioned. Otherwise, this step is mandatory.

    Configure the regional NTP server parameters to be applied to all machines of regional and managed clusters in the specified region.

    In templates/equinix/cluster.yaml.template, add the ntp:servers section with the list of required servers names:

    spec:
      ...
      providerSpec:
        value:
          kaas:
          ...
            regional:
              - helmReleases:
                - name: equinix-provider
                  values:
                    config:
                      lcm:
                        ...
                        ntp:
                          servers:
                          - 0.pool.ntp.org
                          ...
                provider: equinixmetal
                ...
    
  7. Optional, Technology Preview in Container Cloud 2.18.0. Removed in Container Cloud 2.19.0 for compatibility reasons, currently not supported. Enables encryption for the Kubernetes workloads network using the following field to the Cluster object spec:

     spec:
       providerSpec:
         value:
           secureOverlay: true
    

    For more details, see MKE documentation: Kubernetes network encryption.

    • When the option is enabled, Calico networking is configured to use IP-in-IP overlay and BGP routing.

    • When the option is disabled, Calico networking is configured to use VXLAN overlay (no BGP).

  8. Export the following parameters:

    export KAAS_EQUINIX_ENABLED=true
    export KUBECONFIG=<pathToMgmtClusterKubeconfig>
    export REGIONAL_CLUSTER_NAME=<newRegionalClusterName>
    export REGION=<NewRegionName>
    

    Substitute the parameters enclosed in angle brackets with the corresponding values of your cluster.

    Caution

    The REGION and REGIONAL_CLUSTER_NAME parameters values must contain only lowercase alphanumeric characters, hyphens, or periods.

    Note

    If the bootstrap node for the regional cluster deployment is not the same where you bootstrapped the management cluster, also export SSH_KEY_NAME. It is required for the management cluster to create a publicKey Kubernetes CRD with the public part of your newly generated ssh_key for the regional cluster.

    export SSH_KEY_NAME=<newRegionalClusterSshKeyName>
    
  9. Run the regional cluster bootstrap script:

    ./bootstrap.sh deploy_regional
    

    Note

    When the bootstrap is complete, obtain and save in a secure location the kubeconfig-<regionalClusterName> file located in the same directory as the bootstrap script. This file contains the admin credentials for the regional cluster.

    If the bootstrap node for the regional cluster deployment is not the same where you bootstrapped the management cluster, a new regional ssh_key will be generated. Make sure to save this key in a secure location as well.

    The workflow of the regional cluster bootstrap script

    #

    Description

    1

    Prepare the bootstrap cluster for the new regional cluster.

    2

    Load the updated Container Cloud CRDs for Credentials, Cluster, and Machines with information about the new regional cluster to the management cluster.

    3

    Connect to each machine of the management cluster through SSH.

    4

    Wait for the Machines and Cluster objects of the new regional cluster to be ready on the management cluster.

    5

    Load the following objects to the new regional cluster: Secret with the management cluster kubeconfig and ClusterRole for the Container Cloud provider.

    6

    Forward the bootstrap cluster endpoint to helm-controller.

    7

    Wait for all CRDs to be available and verify the objects created using these CRDs.

    8

    Pivot the cluster API stack to the regional cluster.

    9

    Switch the LCM Agent from the bootstrap cluster to the regional one.

    10

    Wait for the Container Cloud components to start on the regional cluster.

Now, you can proceed with deploying the managed clusters of supported provider types as described in Create and operate managed clusters.

Deploy an Equinix Metal based regional cluster with private networking

Before you deploy an additional regional Equinix Metal based cluster with private networking, complete the prerequisite steps described in Prerequisites.

To deploy an Equinix Metal based regional cluster with private networking:

  1. Log in to the bootstrap node running Ubuntu 20.04 that is configured as described in Prerequisites. Properly connect this node to the regional cluster VLAN.

  2. Prepare the bootstrap script:

    1. Download and run the Container Cloud bootstrap script:

      apt install wget
      wget https://binary.mirantis.com/releases/get_container_cloud.sh
      chmod 0755 get_container_cloud.sh
      ./get_container_cloud.sh
      
    2. Change the directory to the kaas-bootstrap folder created by the script.

  3. Obtain your license file that will be required during the bootstrap:

    1. Create a user account at www.mirantis.com.

    2. Log in to your account and download the mirantis.lic license file.

    3. Save the license file as mirantis.lic under the kaas-bootstrap directory on the bootstrap node.

    4. Verify that mirantis.lic contains the exact Container Cloud license previously downloaded from www.mirantis.com by decoding the license JWT token, for example, using jwt.io.

      Example of a valid decoded Container Cloud license data with the mandatory license field:

      {
          "exp": 1652304773,
          "iat": 1636669973,
          "sub": "demo",
          "license": {
              "dev": false,
              "limits": {
                  "clusters": 10,
                  "workers_per_cluster": 10
              },
              "openstack": null
          }
      }
      

      Warning

      The MKE license does not apply to mirantis.lic. For details about MKE license, see MKE documentation.

  4. Using the Equinix Metal console, obtain the project ID and the user-level API Key of the Equinix Metal project to be used for the Container Cloud deployment:

    1. Log in to the Equinix Metal console.

    2. Select the project that you want to use for the Container Cloud deployment.

    3. In Project Settings > General, capture your Project ID.

    4. In Profile Settings > Personal API Keys, capture the existing user-level API Key or create a new one:

      1. In Profile Settings > Personal API Keys, click Add New Key.

      2. Fill in the Description and select the Read/Write permissions.

      3. Click Add Key.

  5. Prepare the Equinix Metal configuration:

    1. Change the directory to kaas-bootstrap.

    2. In templates/equinixmetalv2/equinix-config.yaml.template, modify spec:projectID and spec:apiToken:value using the values obtained in the previous steps. For example:

      spec:
        projectID: g98sd6f8-dc7s-8273-v8s7-d9v7395nd91
        apiToken:
          value: Bi3m9c7qjYBD3UgsnSCSsqs2bYkbK
      
    3. In templates/equinixmetalv2/cluster.yaml.template:

      • Modify the default configuration of the Equinix Metal facility depending on the previously prepared capacity settings as described in Prerequisites:

        providerSpec:
          value:
            # ...
            facility: am6
        
      • Add projectSSHKeys that is the list of the Equinix Metal project SSH key names to be attached to cluster machines. These keys are required for access to the Equinix Metal out-of-band console Serial Over SSH (SOS) to debug provisioning failures. We recommend adding at least one project SSH key per cluster.

        Example of the project SSH keys configuration:

        providerSpec:
          value:
            # ...
            projectSSHKeys:
            - <projectSSHKeyName>
        

        To create an SSH key in an Equinix Metal project:

        1. Log in to the Equinix Metal console.

        2. Select the project that you want to use for the Container Cloud deployment.

        3. In the Project Settings tab, select Project SSH Keys and click Add New Key.

        4. Enter the Key Name and Public Key values and click Add.

      • Modify network parameters as required by your infrastructure:

        providerSpec:
          value:
            # ...
            network:
              vlanId: SET_EQUINIX_VLAN_ID
              loadBalancerHost: SET_LB_HOST
              metallbRanges:
                - SET_EQUINIX_METALLB_RANGES
              cidr: SET_EQUINIX_NETWORK_CIDR
              gateway: SET_EQUINIX_NETWORK_GATEWAY
              dhcpRanges:
                - SET_EQUINIX_NETWORK_DHCP_RANGES
              includeRanges:
                - SET_EQUINIX_CIDR_INCLUDE_RANGES
              excludeRanges:
                - SET_EQUINIX_CIDR_EXCLUDE_RANGES
              nameservers:
                - SET_EQUINIX_NETWORK_NAMESERVERS
        

        Parameter

        Description

        vlanId

        ID of the VLAN created in the corresponding Equinix Metal Metro that the seed node and cluster nodes should be attached to.

        loadBalancerHost

        IP address to use for the MKE and Kubernetes API endpoints of the cluster.

        metallbRanges

        List of IP ranges in the 192.168.0.129-192.168.0.200 format to use for Kubernetes LoadBalancer services. For example, on a management cluster, these services include the Container Cloud web UI and Keycloak. This list should include at least 12 addresses for a management cluster and 5 for managed clusters.

        cidr

        Network address in CIDR notation. For example, 192.168.0.0/24.

        gateway

        IP address of a gateway attached to this VLAN that provides the necessary external connectivity.

        dhcpRanges

        List of IP ranges in the 192.168.0.10-192.168.0.50 format. IP addresses from these ranges will be allocated to nodes that boot from DHCP during the provisioning process. Should include at least one address for each machine in the cluster.

        includeRanges

        List of IP ranges in the 192.168.0.51-192.168.0.128 format. IP addresses from these ranges will be allocated as permanent addresses of machines in this cluster. Should include at least one address for each machine in the cluster.

        excludeRanges

        Optional. List of IP ranges in the 192.168.0.51-192.168.0.128 format. IP addresses from these ranges will not be allocated as permanent addresses of machines in this cluster.

        nameservers

        List of IP addresses of DNS servers that should be configured on machines. These servers must be accessible through the gateway from the provided VLAN. Required unless a proxy server is used.

    4. Add the following parameters to the bootstrap.env file:

      Parameter

      Description

      KAAS_BM_PXE_BRIDGE

      Name of the bridge that will be used to provide PXE services to provision machines during bootstrap.

      KAAS_BM_PXE_IP

      IP address that will be used for PXE services. Will be assigned to the KAAS_BM_PXE_BRIDGE bridge. Must be part of the cidr parameter.

      KAAS_BM_PXE_MASK

      Number of bits in the network address KAAS_BM_PXE_IP. Must match the CIDR suffix in the cidr parameter.

      BOOTSTRAP_METALLB_ADDRESS_POOL

      IP range in the 192.168.0.129-192.168.0.200 format that will be used for Kubernetes LoadBalancer services in the bootstrap cluster.

      Example of this section in bootstrap.env:

      KAAS_BM_PXE_BRIDGE=br0
      KAAS_BM_PXE_IP=192.168.0.5
      KAAS_BM_PXE_MASK=24
      BOOTSTRAP_METALLB_ADDRESS_POOL=192.168.0.129-192.168.0.200
      
    5. Optional. In templates/equinixmetalv2/machines.yaml.template, modify the default configuration of the Equinix Metal machine type. The minimal required type is c3.small.x86.

      Warning

      Mirantis highly recommends using the c3.small.x86 machine type for the control plane machines deployed with private network to prevent hardware issues with incorrect BIOS boot order.

      providerSpec:
        value:
          # ...
          machineType: c3.small.x86
      

      Also, modify other parameters as required.

  6. Optional if servers from the Ubuntu NTP pool (*.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org) are accessible from the VLAN where the regional cluster is being provisioned. Otherwise, this step is mandatory.

    Configure the regional NTP server parameters to be applied to all machines of regional and managed clusters in the specified region.

    In templates/equinixmetalv2/cluster.yaml.template, add the ntp:servers section with the list of required servers names:

    spec:
      ...
      providerSpec:
        value:
          kaas:
          ...
            regional:
              - helmReleases:
                - name: equinix-provider
                  values:
                    config:
                      lcm:
                        ...
                        ntp:
                          servers:
                          - 192.168.0.1
                          ...
                provider: equinixmetalv2
                ...
    
  7. If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server, in bootstrap.env, add the following environment variables to bootstrap the regional cluster using proxy:

    • HTTP_PROXY

    • HTTPS_PROXY

    • NO_PROXY

    • PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH

    Example snippet:

    export HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.example.com:3128
    export HTTPS_PROXY=http://user:pass@proxy.example.com:3128
    export NO_PROXY=172.18.10.0,registry.internal.lan
    export PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH="/home/ubuntu/.mitmproxy/mitmproxy-ca-cert.cer"
    

    The following formats of variables are accepted:

    Proxy configuration data

    Variable

    Format

    HTTP_PROXY
    HTTPS_PROXY
    • http://proxy.example.com:port - for anonymous access

    • http://user:password@proxy.example.com:port - for restricted access

    NO_PROXY

    Comma-separated list of IP addresses or domain names

    PROXY_CA_CERTIFICATE_PATH Available since 2.20.0 as GA

    Optional. Path to the proxy CA certificate for man-in-the-middle (MITM) proxies. Must be placed on the bootstrap node to be trusted. For details, see Install a CA certificate for a MITM proxy on a bootstrap node.

    Warning

    If you require Internet access to go through a MITM proxy, ensure that the proxy has streaming enabled as described in Enable streaming for MITM.

    Note

    • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, this parameter is generally available for the OpenStack, bare metal, Equinix Metal with private networking, AWS, and vSphere providers

    • For MOSK-based deployments, the feature support is available since MOSK 22.4

    • Since Container Cloud 2.18.0, this parameter is available as TechPreview for the OpenStack and bare metal providers only

    • For Azure and Equinix Metal with public networking, the feature is not supported

    For implementation details, see Proxy and cache support.

    For the list of Mirantis resources and IP addresses to be accessible from the Container Cloud clusters, see Requirements for an Equinix Metal based cluster.

  8. Optional, Technology Preview in Container Cloud 2.18.0. Removed in Container Cloud 2.19.0 for compatibility reasons, currently not supported. Enables encryption for the Kubernetes workloads network using the following field to the Cluster object spec:

     spec:
       providerSpec:
         value:
           secureOverlay: true
    

    For more details, see MKE documentation: Kubernetes network encryption.

    • When the option is enabled, Calico networking is configured to use IP-in-IP overlay and BGP routing.

    • When the option is disabled, Calico networking is configured to use VXLAN overlay (no BGP).

  9. Export the following parameters:

    export KAAS_EQUINIXMETALV2_ENABLED=true
    export KUBECONFIG=<pathToMgmtClusterKubeconfig>
    export REGIONAL_CLUSTER_NAME=<newRegionalClusterName>
    export REGION=<NewRegionName>
    export SSH_KEY_NAME=<newRegionalClusterSshKeyName>
    

    Substitute the parameters enclosed in angle brackets with the corresponding values of your cluster.

    Caution

    The REGION and REGIONAL_CLUSTER_NAME parameters values must contain only lowercase alphanumeric characters, hyphens, or periods.

  10. Re-verify that the selected Equinix Metal facility for the regional cluster bootstrap is still available and has enough capacity:

    metal capacity check -f $EQUINIX_FACILITY -P $EQUINIX_MACHINE_TYPE -q $MACHINES_AMOUNT
    

    Note

    Depending on your metal CLI version, naming of flags may vary. To verify naming of flags available for your metal CLI version, run metal capacity check --help.

    In the system response, if the value in the AVAILABILITY section has changed from true to false, find an available facility and update the previously configured facility field in cluster.yaml.template.

    For details about the verification procedure, see Verify the capacity of the Equinix Metal facility.

  11. Run the regional cluster bootstrap script:

    ./bootstrap.sh deploy_regional
    

    Note

    When the bootstrap is complete, obtain and save in a secure location the kubeconfig-<regionalClusterName> file located in the same directory as the bootstrap script. This file contains the admin credentials for the regional cluster.

    The workflow of the regional cluster bootstrap script

    #

    Description

    1

    Prepare the bootstrap cluster for the new regional cluster.

    2

    Load the updated Container Cloud CRDs for Credentials, Cluster, and Machines with information about the new regional cluster to the management cluster.

    3

    Connect to each machine of the management cluster through SSH.

    4

    Wait for the Machines and Cluster objects of the new regional cluster to be ready on the management cluster.

    5

    Load the following objects to the new regional cluster: Secret with the management cluster kubeconfig and ClusterRole for the Container Cloud provider.

    6

    Forward the bootstrap cluster endpoint to helm-controller.

    7

    Wait for all CRDs to be available and verify the objects created using these CRDs.

    8

    Pivot the cluster API stack to the regional cluster.

    9

    Switch the LCM Agent from the bootstrap cluster to the regional one.

    10

    Wait for the Container Cloud components to start on the regional cluster.

  12. Establish connection to the cluster private network:

    1. Install sshuttle.

    2. Obtain the cluster CIDR from the cluster specification:

      kubectl --kubeconfig <clusterKubeconfig> \
      get cluster <clusterName> -n <clusterProjectName> \
      -o jsonpath='{.spec.providerSpec.value.network.cidr}'
      
    3. Obtain the public IP address of the related Equinix Metal router:

      1. Log in to the Equinix Metal console of the related project.

      2. In the list of servers, capture the IP address of the related Equinix Metal router server listed in the IPV4 ADDRESS column.

    4. Establish connection to the cluster private network from your local machine:

      sshuttle <clusterCIDR> -r ubuntu@<routerPublicIP> --ssh-cmd 'ssh -i <pathToRouterSSHKey>'
      

    Now, you can access the Keycloak, StackLight, and Container Cloud web UIs.

Now, you can proceed with deploying the managed clusters of supported provider types as described in Create and operate an Equinix Metal based managed cluster with private networking.

Caution

To decrease network traffic cost and not to complicate the network infrastructure, you must deploy managed clusters in the same region as the regional cluster to have both clusters deployed in the same metro.

For example, if you have a management cluster with region-one in Frankfurt and a regional cluster with region-two in Silicon Valley, create all Frankfurt-based managed clusters in region-one and all Silicon Valley based managed clusters in region-two.

Deploy a baremetal-based regional cluster

Available since 2.16.0

You can deploy an additional regional baremetal-based cluster to create managed clusters of several provider types or with different configurations within a single Container Cloud deployment.

Ceph changes in Container Cloud 2.20

  • Since Container Cloud 2.20.0, the Ceph cluster does not deploy on management and regional clusters to reduce resource consumption.

  • Ceph cluster is automatically removed from existing management and regional clusters during the Container Cloud update to 2.20.0.

  • Managed clusters continue using Ceph as a distributed storage system.

To deploy a baremetal-based regional cluster:

  1. Log in to the node where you bootstrapped the Container Cloud management cluster.

  2. Verify that the bootstrap directory is updated.

    Select from the following options:

    • For clusters deployed using Container Cloud 2.11.0 or later:

      ./container-cloud bootstrap download --management-kubeconfig <pathToMgmtKubeconfig> \
      --target-dir <pathToBootstrapDirectory>
      
    • For clusters deployed using the Container Cloud release earlier than 2.11.0 or if you deleted the kaas-bootstrap folder, download and run the Container Cloud bootstrap script:

      wget https://binary.mirantis.com/releases/get_container_cloud.sh
      
      chmod 0755 get_container_cloud.sh
      
      ./get_container_cloud.sh
      
  3. Prepare the bare metal configuration for the new regional cluster:

    1. Create a virtual bridge to connect to your PXE network on the seed node. Use the following netplan-based configuration file as an example:

      # cat /etc/netplan/config.yaml
      network:
        version: 2
        renderer: networkd
        ethernets:
          ens3:
              dhcp4: false
              dhcp6: false
        bridges:
            br0:
                addresses:
                # Please, adjust for your environment
                - 10.0.0.15/24
                dhcp4: false
                dhcp6: false
                # Please, adjust for your environment
                gateway4: 10.0.0.1
                interfaces:
                # Interface name may be different in your environment
                - ens3
                nameservers:
                    addresses:
                    # Please, adjust for your environment
                    - 8.8.8.8
                parameters:
                    forward-delay: 4
                    stp: false
      
    2. Apply the new network configuration using netplan:

      sudo netplan apply
      
    3. Verify the new network configuration:

      sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y bridge-utils
      sudo brctl show
      

      Example of system response:

      bridge name     bridge id               STP enabled     interfaces
      br0             8000.fa163e72f146       no              ens3
      

      Verify that the interface connected to the PXE network belongs to the previously configured bridge.

    4. Install the current Docker version available for Ubuntu 20.04:

      sudo apt update
      sudo apt install docker.io
      
    5. Verify that your logged USER has access to the Docker daemon:

      sudo usermod -aG docker $USER
      
    6. Log out and log in again to the seed node to apply the changes.

    7. Verify that Docker is configured correctly and has access to Container Cloud CDN. For example:

      docker run --rm alpine sh -c "apk add --no-cache curl; \
      curl https://binary.mirantis.com"
      

      The system output must contain a json file with no error messages. In case of errors, follow the steps provided in Troubleshooting.

      Note

      If you require all Internet access to go through a proxy server for security and audit purposes, configure Docker proxy settings as described in the official Docker documentation.

  4. Verify that the seed node has direct access to the Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) of each baremetal host. All target hardware nodes must be in the power off state.

    For example, using the IPMI tool:

    apt install ipmitool
    ipmitool -I lanplus -H 'IPMI IP' -U 'IPMI Login' -P 'IPMI password' \
    chassis power status
    

    Example of system response:

    Chassis Power is off
    
  5. Prepare the deployment configuration files that contain the cluster and machines metadata:

    1. Create a copy of the current templates directory for future reference.

      mkdir templates.backup
      cp -r templates/*  templates.backup/
      
    2. Update the cluster definition template in templates/bm/cluster.yaml.template according to the environment configuration. Use the table below. Manually set all parameters that start with SET_. For example, SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL.

      Cluster template mandatory parameters

      Parameter

      Description

      Example value

      SET_LB_HOST

      The IP address of the externally accessible API endpoint of the cluster. This address must NOT be within the SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL range but must be within the PXE/Management network. External load balancers are not supported.

      10.0.0.90

      SET_METALLB_ADDR_POOL

      The IP range to be used as external load balancers for the Kubernetes services with the LoadBalancer type. This range must be within the PXE/Management network. The minimum required range is 19 IP addresses.

      10.0.0.61-10.0.0.80

    3. Optional. If you plan to use multiple L2 segments for provisioning of managed cluster nodes, consider the requirements specified in Configure multiple DHCP ranges using Subnet resources.

    4. Optional. Override the default dnsmasq settings.

      The dnsmasq configuration options dhcp-option=3 and dhcp-option=6 are absent in the default configuration. So, by default, dnsmasq will send the DNS server and default route to DHCP clients as defined in the dnsmasq official documentation:

      • The netmask and broadcast address are the same as on the host running dnsmasq.

      • The DNS server and default route are set to the address of the host running dnsmasq.

      • If the domain name option is set, this name is sent to DHCP clients.

      If such behavior is not desirable during the cluster deployment, add the corresponding DHCP options, such as a specific gateway address and DNS addresses, using the dnsmasq.dnsmasq_extra_opts parameter for the baremetal-operator release in templates/bm/cluster.yaml.template:

       providerSpec:
         value:
           kind: BaremetalClusterProviderSpec
           ...
           kaas:
             regional:
             - provider: baremetal
               helmReleases:
               - name: baremetal-operator
                 values:
                   dnsmasq:
                     dnsmasq_extra_opts:
                     - dhcp-option=3
                     - dhcp-option=6
      
    5. Optional if servers from the Ubuntu NTP pool (*.ubuntu.pool.ntp.org) are accessible from the node where your cluster is being provisioned. Otherwise, this step is mandatory.

      Configure the regional NTP server parameters to be applied to all machines of regional and managed clusters in the specified region.

      In templates/bm/cluster.yaml.template, add the ntp:servers section with the list of required servers names:

      spec:
        ...
        providerSpec:
          value:
            kaas:
            ...
              regional:
                - helmReleases:
                  - name: baremetal-provider
                    values:
                      config:
                        lcm:
                          ...
                          ntp:
                            servers:
                            - 0.pool.ntp.org
                            ...
                  provider: baremetal
                  ...
      
    6. Inspect the default bare metal host profile definition in templates/bm/baremetalhostprofiles.yaml.template. If your hardware configuration differs from the reference, adjust the default profile to match. For details, see Customize the default bare metal host profile.

      Warning

      All data will be wiped during cluster deployment on devices defined directly or indirectly in the fileSystems list of BareMetalHostProfile. For example:

      • A raw device partition with a file system on it

      • A device partition in a volume group with a logical volume that has a file system on it

      • An mdadm RAID device with a file system on it

      • An LVM RAID device with a file system on it

      The wipe field is always considered true for these devices. The false value is ignored.

      Therefore, to prevent data loss, move the necessary data from these file systems to another server beforehand, if required.

    7. Update the bare metal hosts definition template in templates/bm/baremetalhosts.yaml.template according to the environment configuration. Use the table below. Manually set all parameters that start with SET_.

      Bare metal hosts template mandatory parameters

      Parameter

      Description

      Example value

      SET_MACHINE_0_IPMI_USERNAME

      The IPMI user name in the base64 encoding to access the BMC. 0

      dXNlcg== (base64 encoded user)

      SET_MACHINE_0_IPMI_PASSWORD

      The IPMI password in the base64 encoding to access the BMC. 0

      cGFzc3dvcmQ= (base64 encoded password)

      SET_MACHINE_0_MAC

      The MAC address of the first master node in the PXE network.

      ac:1f:6b:02:84:71

      SET_MACHINE_0_BMC_ADDRESS

      The IP address of the BMC endpoint for the first master node in the cluster. Must be an address from the OOB network that is accessible through the PXE network default gateway.

      192.168.100.11

      SET_MACHINE_1_IPMI_USERNAME

      The IPMI user name in the base64 encoding to access the BMC. 0

      dXNlcg== (base64 encoded user)

      SET_MACHINE_1_IPMI_PASSWORD

      The IPMI password in the base64 encoding to access the BMC. 0

      cGFzc3dvcmQ= (base64 encoded password)

      SET_MACHINE_1_MAC

      The MAC address of the second master node in the PXE network.

      ac:1f:6b:02:84:72

      SET_MACHINE_1_BMC_ADDRESS

      The IP address of the BMC endpoint for the second master node in the cluster. Must be an address from the OOB network that is accessible through the PXE network default gateway.

      192.168.100.12

      SET_MACHINE_2_IPMI_USERNAME

      The IPMI user name in the base64 encoding to access the BMC. 0

      dXNlcg== (base64 encoded user)

      SET_MACHINE_2_IPMI_PASSWORD

      The IPMI password in the base64 encoding to access the BMC. 0

      cGFzc3dvcmQ= (base64 encoded password)

      SET_MACHINE_2_MAC

      The MAC address of the third master node in the PXE network.

      ac:1f:6b:02:84:73

      SET_MACHINE_2_BMC_ADDRESS

      The IP address of the BMC endpoint for the third master node in the cluster. Must be an address from the OOB network that is accessible through the PXE network default gateway.

      192.168.100.13

      0(1,2,3,4,5,6)

      You can obtain the base64-encoded user name and password using the following command in your Linux console:

      $ echo -n <username|password> | base64
      
    8. Update the Subnet objects definition template in templates/bm/ipam-objects.yaml.template according to the environment configuration. Use the table below. Manually set all parameters that start with SET_. For example, SET_IPAM_POOL_RANGE.

      IP address pools template mandatory parameters

      Parameter

      Description

      Example value

      SET_IPAM_CIDR

      The address of PXE network in CIDR notation. Must be minimum in the /24 network.

      10.0.0.0/24

      SET_PXE_NW_GW

      The default gateway in the PXE network. Since this is the only network that cluster will use by default, this gateway must provide access to:

      • The Internet to download the Mirantis artifacts

      • The OOB network of the Container Cloud cluster

      10.0.0.1

      SET_PXE_NW_DNS

      An external (non-Kubernetes) DNS server accessible from the PXE network.

      8.8.8.8

      SET_IPAM_POOL_RANGE

      This IP address range includes addresses that will be allocated in the PXE/Management network to bare metal hosts of the cluster.

      10.0.0.100-10.0.0.252